Advanced study of ideal and realfluid flows including 'potential flow' analysis, boundary layers, jets & wakes, diffusion & dispersion, fluidstructure interactions.
Syllabus : Irrotational flow: flow nets, graphical & analytical compounding, standard flow patterns. Real fluid flows: wakes, bluff body flows. Water hammer analysis: elastic column theory, graphical & computer solutions.
The aim of the subject is to introduce the students to advanced fluid dynamics calculations : two and threedimensional flows, analytical theory, graphical methods and computations.
Subject goals: Idealfluid flow calculations may provide analytical solutions of simple fluid dynamics problems. Engineering applications include groundwater flow, spillway intake, airfoils, dispersion in rivers. The concepts of streamlines and equipotentials are derived from the basic principles of fluid mechanics (continuity, Bernoulli, momentum) and a graphical method is developed. The students are exposed to engineering applications and learn to distinguish between idealfluid and realfluid flows. Real fluid flow situations are analysed, including boundary layer flow, dispersion of matter and fluidstructure interactions. Parallels with E2315 Soil mechanics 1 (seepage flows) and E2437 Engineering for Small Buildings (wind loads) are presented.
At the completion of the subject, each student should be able to apply the theoretical concepts of ideal fluid flow to engineering situations, to know the limitation of the
method and to understand realfluid flow processes.
Assumed background: E2308 is an advanced fluid mechanics subject. It is expected that the students have mastered the fundamental principles of fluid mechanics (subjects E2223 & E2227).
The subject outline may be downloaded: CLICK HERE (Word format, version 5/7/00).
+ LIGGETT, J.A. (1994). "Fluid Mechanics." McGrawHill, New York, USA.
+ VALLENTINE, H.R. (1969). "Applied Hydrodynamics." Butterworths, London, UK, SI edition.
Magnus effect
The Magnus effect characterises the lift force exerted on a rotating cylinder in an uniform flow. The lift force is proportional to the fluid density, uniform flow velocity and the rotation speed of the cylinder. It is named after H.G. MAGNUS (18021870), a German physicist who investigated this effect in 1852. The rotor ship, designed by Anton FLETTNER (18851961) about 1924, used this principle. It was designed by mounting large vertical circular cylinders on the ship and then mechanically rotating the cylinders to provide circulation. More recently a similar system was developed for the new ship "Alcyone" of J.Y. COUSTEAU.
The flow past a rotating cylinder may be achieved by the superposition of an uniform flow, a doublet at the origin and a vortex at the origin. The rotation of the cylinder induces a velocity acceleration on one side of the cylinder, associated with underpressure, and a fluid deceleration on the other side associated with an increase of pressure. The resulting pressure difference across the cylinder generates a lift force acting normal to the flow velocity.
The Magnus effect it is responsible for the curve of a topspin tennis ball or a driven golf ball, and it affects the trajectory of a spinning artillery shell and intercontinental missiles. On the Alcyone vessel, the rotating cylinder was replaced by some suction effect on parts of the cylinder. The resulting flow pattern is very close to that of the flow past a rotating cylinder, without the cumbersome apparatus.Appendices : mathematical formulae, glossary (version 10/7/200)
Idealfluid flow
Tutorial 1 : Basic equations (version 12/7/2000)
Tutorial 2 : Streamlines, velocity potential and irrotational flow (version 24/7/2000) + Figure 1 + Figure 2
Tutorial 3 : Flow analogy and basic flow patterns (version 7/8/2000) + Figure 1 + Figure 2 + Figure 3 + Figure 4Software : 2DFlowPlus by DynaFlow. Demonstration version : CLICK HERE.
Rating : [***] = superb, must see  [**] = excellentGeneral
ASME Database (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)Computational Fluid Dynamics
Measurement systems : SI Units and significant figuresFoundation Cousteau (see Alcyone)
Potential flow : superposition of elementary flows (University of Syracuse)
FEATFlow (Excellent site with numerical flow visualisations) [**]Diffusion/Dispersion
Cornell Theory Center Scientific Images and Animation (Flow visualisation) [**]
Fluid Mechanics Flow Visualisation at Ecole Polytechnique (France) (Flow visualisation)
Coastal Ocean Modeling at the USGS Woods Hole Field CenterAtmospheric Fluid Dynamics
EPA Multimedia projects (USA) (Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico)
Morning Glory  Amazing Waves [**]Advanced Fluid Dynamics ResearchClimate Information (Australia)
Fluid dynamics research  Aeration expertise (R. Manasseh) (Nice photographs of bubbles)Aircraft and aerodynamics
Airbus Industry (go to Images, Photo gallery) [**]Softwares
Dassault Aviation
USAF Thunderbirds [**]
USN Blue Angels [**]
2DFlowPlus [**] by DynaFlow. Demonstration version : CLICK HERE.Resources
CFD Resources OnlineUtility
A list of fluid mechanics related http servers
Structurae, International Database and Gallery of Structures [**]University of Queensland Library
ICEnet: The Institution of Civil Engineers, UK Homepage
Japan Society of Civil Engineers
ASCE  American Society of Civil Engineers Homepage
ASME  American Society of Mechanical EngineersENPC  Ponts et Chaussees
IAHR homepage (International Association for Hydraulic Research)
Video Player MPEG
Utilities  TUCOWS
Utilities  CNet
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