Advanced Fluid Mechanics (Ideal Fluid Flow & Irrotational Flow Motion) (E2308)
Teaching activities by Dr H. CHANSON

Advanced Fluid Mechanics (E2308)

Lecture material
Tutorials, Exercises
Useful links
    Computational Fluid Dynamics
    Atmospheric Fluid Dynamics
    Advanced Fluid Dynamics Research
    Aircraft and aerodynamics


Advanced study of ideal- and real-fluid flows including 'potential flow' analysis, boundary layers, jets & wakes, diffusion & dispersion, fluid-structure interactions.
Syllabus : Irrotational flow: flow nets, graphical & analytical compounding, standard flow patterns. Real fluid flows: wakes, bluff body flows. Water hammer analysis: elastic column theory, graphical & computer solutions.


The aim of the subject is to introduce the students to advanced fluid dynamics calculations : two- and three-dimensional flows, analytical theory, graphical methods and computations.
Subject goals: Ideal-fluid flow calculations may provide analytical solutions of simple fluid dynamics problems. Engineering applications include groundwater flow, spillway intake, airfoils, dispersion in rivers. The concepts of streamlines and equi-potentials are derived from the basic principles of fluid mechanics (continuity, Bernoulli, momentum) and a graphical method is developed. The students are exposed to engineering applications and learn to distinguish between ideal-fluid and real-fluid flows. Real fluid flow situations are analysed, including boundary layer flow, dispersion of matter and fluid-structure interactions. Parallels with E2315 Soil mechanics 1 (seepage flows) and E2437 Engineering for Small Buildings (wind loads) are presented.
At the completion of the subject, each student should be able to apply the theoretical concepts of ideal fluid flow to engineering situations, to know the limitation of the
method and to understand real-fluid flow processes.
Assumed background: E2308 is an advanced fluid mechanics subject. It is expected that the students have mastered the fundamental principles of fluid mechanics (subjects E2223 & E2227).
The subject outline may be downloaded: CLICK HERE (Word format, version 5/7/00).


+  LIGGETT, J.A. (1994). "Fluid Mechanics." McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.
+  VALLENTINE, H.R. (1969). "Applied Hydrodynamics." Butterworths, London, UK, SI edition.

Lecture material

Magnus effect
The Magnus effect characterises the lift force exerted on a rotating cylinder in an uniform flow. The lift force is proportional to the fluid density, uniform flow velocity and the rotation speed of the cylinder. It is named after H.G. MAGNUS (1802-1870), a German physicist who investigated this effect in 1852. The rotor ship, designed by Anton FLETTNER (1885-1961) about 1924, used this principle. It was designed by mounting large vertical circular cylinders on the ship and then mechanically rotating the cylinders to provide circulation. More recently a similar system was developed for the new ship "Alcyone" of J.Y. COUSTEAU.
The flow past a rotating cylinder may be achieved by the superposition of an uniform flow, a doublet at the origin and a vortex at the origin. The rotation of the cylinder induces a velocity acceleration on one side of the cylinder, associated with underpressure, and a fluid deceleration on the other side associated with an increase of pressure. The resulting pressure difference across the cylinder generates a lift force acting normal to the flow velocity.
The Magnus effect it is responsible for the curve of a top-spin tennis ball or a driven golf ball, and it affects the trajectory of a spinning artillery shell and intercontinental missiles. On the Alcyone vessel, the rotating cylinder was replaced by some suction effect on parts of the cylinder. The resulting flow pattern is very close to that of the flow past a rotating cylinder, without the cumbersome apparatus.

Appendices : mathematical formulae, glossary (version 10/7/200)

Tutorials, Exercises

Ideal-fluid flow
    Tutorial 1 : Basic equations (version 12/7/2000)
    Tutorial 2 : Streamlines, velocity potential and irrotational flow (version 24/7/2000) + Figure 1 + Figure 2
    Tutorial 3 : Flow analogy and basic flow patterns (version 7/8/2000) + Figure 1 + Figure 2 + Figure 3 + Figure 4

Software : 2D-FlowPlus  by DynaFlow. Demonstration version : CLICK HERE.

Useful Links

Rating : [***] = superb, must see - [**] = excellent
ASME Database (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)
Measurement systems : SI Units and significant figures

Gallery of Photographs in Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering and Engineering History

Foundation Cousteau (see Alcyone)

Computational Fluid Dynamics
Potential flow : superposition of elementary flows (University of Syracuse)
FEAT-Flow (Excellent site with numerical flow visualisations) [**]
Cornell Theory Center Scientific Images and Animation (Flow visualisation) [**]
Fluid Mechanics Flow Visualisation at Ecole Polytechnique (France) (Flow visualisation)
Coastal Ocean Modeling at the USGS Woods Hole Field Center
EPA Multimedia projects (USA) (Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico)
Atmospheric Fluid Dynamics
 Morning Glory - Amazing Waves [**]

 Climate Information (Australia)

Advanced Fluid Dynamics Research
Fluid dynamics research - Aeration expertise (R. Manasseh) (Nice photographs of bubbles)
Aircraft and aerodynamics
Airbus Industry (go to Images, Photo gallery) [**]
Dassault Aviation
USAF Thunderbirds [**]
USN Blue Angels [**]
2D-FlowPlus [**]  by DynaFlow. Demonstration version : CLICK HERE.
 CFD Resources Online
 A list of fluid mechanics related http servers
 Structurae, International Database and Gallery of Structures [**]

 University of Queensland Library

ICEnet: The Institution of Civil Engineers, UK Homepage
Japan Society of Civil Engineers
ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers Homepage
ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ENPC - Ponts et Chaussees
IAHR homepage (International Association for Hydraulic Research)

Video Player MPEG
Utilities - TUCOWS
Utilities - CNet

This page was visited :  times since 25-02-1999.
Last updated on 14/08/2000.
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