Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering
Professor Hubert Chanson's Gallery of Photographs
  13th Arthur Ippen awardee
  Last updated on 12/04/2013
Mascaret, Selune river
PHOTOGRAPHS
Hydraulic structures
    Historical/heritage structures 
    Roman waterworks
    Contemporary hydraulic structures     
    Culverts
    Stepped spillways and chutes    new material
    Check dams and debris dams
   
Dam break wave and debris flows
    Canals / Navigation Canals 
    Pipes, conduits and pipelines  
Hydrology & Storms   new material
   Floods in Brisbane and South East Queensland (Australia) on 20-22 May 2009  
   Floods in Queensland (Australia) during the summer 2010-2011     new material
   Floods in Queensland (Australia) during Australia's Day in January 2013     new material
    Rainstorms
    Storms 
Rivers and streams of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Taiwan, Korea     new material
    River processes 
    Sediment transport in streams    
    Waterfalls
    Flood plains and Lakes 
    Artifical river system, fishway and fish pass
Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel FlowCoastlines of Japan, Australia, France, China, Italy, Taiwan
    Tidal bores     
    Whirlpools   
Civil Engineering structures   
    Atlantic wall (Mur de l'Atlantique) 
  
  Great Wall of China
    Wind farms
Engineering failures and accidents of hydraulic and coastal structures   
    Dams, Extreme reservoir siltation, Bridges
Earthquake related disasters
    Earthquake engineering
    Tsunami   
        Boxing Day 26 December 2004 Tsunami disaster  / Photographs of 26 Dec. 2004 tsunami    

    Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake (21 Sept. 1999)
Aircrafts and "Flying Machines" 
Cascades, water staircases and fountains (cascades, fontaines, bassin)   
Research experiments
Lectures
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This gallery of photographs was prepared by Hubert Chanson. It contains over 900 photographs and there are a wide variety of images with large gaps in this collection. The photographs were taken primarily for use in Hubert Chanson's teaching in order to supplement commercial material. Since not everyone has the latest browser version, this site has been kept simple for easy access by the majority. There are too many slow and ugly sites on the Web produced by people with no expertise in graphic design. Since Hubert Chanson lacks such expertise himself, he has kept the layout simple.
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Copyright and Use of Photographs

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
You may use these images for no commercial use only. However the copyright remains attached to the photograph author(s) {Dr Chanson unless mentioned}

13th Ippen award (IAHR)

Hydraulic structures

Historical/heritage structures
BC 1,300- Arkananian stepped weir (Greece BC 1,300) : the world's oldest stepped spillway (Courtesy of Professor KNAUSS). Note the watermill on the foreground and the new concrete road in the background [Ref.: CHANSON 1997, ANCOLD Bulletin No. 106]
BC 100- Nabataean dam at Mamshit (Israel, around BC 100). Also called Kurnub dam. Photo No. 1 : the dam across the valley on 10 May 2001 (Courtesy of Dennis MURPHY). Photo No. 2 : deatil of the downstream wall face on 10 May 2001 (Courtesy of Dennis MURPHY).
AD 1150- Storm waterway at Miya-jima (Japan) - Photo No. 1 : storm waterway below below Senjò-kaku wooden hall on 19 Nov. 2001. The stepped chute is steep (slope > 45 deg., h ~ 0.4 m). The Senjò-kaku wooden hall was built by Kyomori (AD 1168) and left unfinished at his death. It is likely that the waterway design dates from the 12th century.
AD 1650- Khaju bridge weir, Iran in 1997 (Courtesy of Dr Zarrati), built in AD 1650 during the Safavid era in Persia (123-m long, 24 arches). (Dam name also spelled Khadju or Khadjoo.)
AD 1831- Jones Falls dam (Canada, 1831). Designed by Colonel John BY, and built betweeen 1828 and 1831, the 18.7 m high masonry arch dam is used to feed the Rideau Canal linking Kingston to Ottawa. Photo No. 1 : View from the left bank (Courtesy of Ken WATSON). More about Arch dams ...
AD 1834- Tillot dam (France 1834), built as a feeder of the Canal de Bourgogne. It is equipped with a stepped spillway (design flow rate : 19 m3/s) with converging sidewalls. View from upstream in January 1997. More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD 1854- Zola dam, (Aix-en-Pr., France 1854) in June 1998 - Arch dam designed by Maurice ZOLA (1795-1847), father of the novelist Emile ZOLA [Ref.: CHANSON and JAMES 1998, Research Rep. CE157] More about Arch dams ...
AD 1857- Yan Yean dam (Melbourne VIC, Australia 1857). Australia's first large dam is still in use. Photo No. 1 : view from the left bank on 1 Feb. 2000.
AD 1870- Malmsbury dam spillway (Bendigo VIC, Australia 1870). The Eastern (right) spillway was Australia's first large stepped spillway. It is still in use. [Ref.: CHANSON 1997, ANCOLD Bulletin No.106 ] More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD 1873- Lower Stony Creek dam (Geelong VIC, Australia 1873). Designed by George GORDON and built under the supervision of Edward DOBSON, the curved gravity structure is Australia's first mass concrete dam. It is still in use today. [Ref.: CHANSON and JAMES, Research Report CE 157] See listing in Structurae.
AD 1880- 75 Miles dam (Warwick QLD, Australia 1880), the world's oldest concrete arch dam. Photo No. 1 : the 1880 arch dam shortly before completion (Courtesy of the MACCROSSAN family) - Photo No. 2 : details of buttress added in 1901 during the dam heightening (photograph taken in Jan. 1998). More about Arch dams ... See listing in Structurae.
AD 1882- Le Pont dam (France 1882). Dam and spillway designed by H. BAZIN. Stepped spillway with circular step crests and pooled steps. Photograph taken in June 1998. More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD 1890- Gold Creek dam spillway (Australia 1890). The Gold Creek dam spillway is the world's first concrete stepped spillway. It was built in non-reinforced concrete and it is still in use (CHANSON & WHITMORE 1998, Can J Civ Eng). The spillway crest was refurbished a number of times but the original stepped chute is intact. The dam is located in Brookfield, Brisbane QLD. Gold Creek dam stepped spillway in operation in May 1996 : View from downstream, view from left bank, view from right bank bottom. Overflow in May 1996 - View from left bank. Field trip with students on 9 Sept. 1998. Field trip with students in Aug. 2000. Student field trip on 11 Sept. 2002 : Photo 1 and Photo 2. Student field trip on 22 September 2006: Photo No. 1 : Gold Creek reservoir on 25 Sept. 2006; note the low water reservoir level. Photo No. 2 : Intake tower on 22 Sept. 2006; the intake tower was built in 1905, to replace the original cast-iron tower which failed in 1904. Photo No. 3 : Concrete stepped chute on 22 Sept. 2006. Photo No. 4 : Gold Creek flood plain downstream of the Gold Creek dam om 25 Sept. 2006; note the house in the background sitting on inundable land : flow plain mismanagement ?. Photo No. 5 : House in the flood plain on 25 Sept. 2006. Gold Creek dam spillway during CIVL3140 field trip on 5 Sept. 2007 : Photo 1 & Photo 2. UQ CIVL3140 student field trip on 9 Sept. 2009: students studying the first two steps; Students on the lower steps of the staircase spillway.Students inspecting the broad-crest (Courtesy of Stefan FELDER).
    More about Gold Creek dam and its historical stepped spillway ...  More about Stepped spillway design ... See listing in Structurae.
AD 1891- Goulburn weir (Victoria, Australia 1891). Photo No. 1 : weir overflow prior to the gate refurbihsment - Photo No. 2 : View from left bank, with one opened gate (Q=5 m3/s) on 30 Jan. 2000  [Ref.: CHANSON 1995]. More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD1891- La Tâche dam (France 1891). Unlined rock stepped cascade, photograph taken in Dec. 1994. (Also called Chartrain dam). More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD 1894- Redridge timber crib dam - Photo No. 1 : old timber crib weir upstream of the Redridge steel dam (Courtesy of Cindy MILLER). Completed in 1894, the dam was 16.1 m thick at base, 8.5 m thick at crest and 15.2 m high.  More about Timber crib weirs ...
AD 1897- Junction Reefs dam (Lyndhurst NSW, Austalia, 1897). Built between 1895 and 1897, completed in 1897, the Junction Reefs dam is a concrete-brick multiple arch dam (CHANSON and JAMES 1998). There are 5 arches, with a 8.5-m span each, sitting on 6 buttresses. The dam foundation and the outside walls are made of concrete. The arches and buttresses are brick works. The reservoir was built to supply hydropower to the mining company. Four Pelton wheels were supplied by the dam. The Junction Reefs dam is well-known wroldwide as a heritage structure of international significance (WEGMANN 1922, SMITH 1970, SCHNITTER 1994).  Interstingly the Junction Reefs dam may be compared with the Tallong dam. The Tallong dam, completed in 1883, is a brick buttress-slab structure, still in use. Photo No. 1 : View from the left abutment on 28 Dec. 1997; note the unlined rick spillway in the foreground.  More about Arch dams ...
AD 1898- Ashfork dam (Flagstaff Ariz., USA 1898) also known as Steel dam: Photo No. 1 : view from downstream (Courtesy of  Stephanie YARD, USDA) - Photo No. 2 : detail of the steel structure (Courtesy of  Stephanie YARD, USDA) - Photo No. 3 : connection steel dam/masonry abutment (Courtesy of  Stephanie YARD, USDA). More about Steel dams ...
AD 1901- Redridge dam - Photo No. 1 : view from upstream on 15 Dec. 2001 (Courtesy of Cindy MILLER). Photo No. 2 : view from upstream on 15 Dec. 2001 (Courtesy of Cindy MILLER). More about Steel dams ...
AD 1902- Upper Cordeaux No. 1 dam (Wollongong NSW, Australia 1902) on 25 Nov. 1999 - View from right bank [Ref.: CHANSON and JAMES 1998) Research Rep. CE157]. More about Arch dams ...
AD 1903- Upper Coliban dam (Bendigo VIC, Australia 1903). Photo No. 1 : the stepped cascade at the downstream end of the spillway on 30 Jan. 2000. More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD 1905 - Urft dam (Germany). Photo No. 1: general view of the dam and spillway on 22 Feb. 2013. Photo No. 2: detail of the spillway non-linear crest on 22 Feb. 2013. Photo No. 3 : stepped spillway on 22 Feb. 2013.
AD 1908- De Burgh dam (NSW, Australia). Photo No. 1 : overflow over the fully-silted dam on 22 July 1998 (Courtesy pf D.P. James). Photo No. 2 : overflow on 22 July 1998 (Courtesy of D.P. JAMES). Completed in 1908, the De Burgh dam was named after its designer Ernst de BURGH. It was built as a water supply for the narrow-gauge railway  line connecting Goondah NSW to the construction site of the Burrinjuck dam. The De Burgh dam is Australia's first reinforced concrete arch dam. More about Arch dams ... More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...

AD 1911 - Croton Falls dam stepped spillway. Completed in 1911, the reservoir is part of New York City water supply system. The stepped spillway is 213 m wide (h = 0.61 m) and it is equipped with rounded steps (CHANSON 1995, p. 31, 39 &202). Photo No.1 and No. 2: Overflow in March 2001 (Courtesy of Mrs J. HACKER).
AD 1911- Koorawatha weir (1911) in December 1997 (Courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. CHANSON) [Ref.: CHANSON (1998), Intl. Jl of Sed. Res.;  CHANSON and JAMES 1998, Research Rep. CE157]. More about Arch dams ... More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...
AD 1912- Cunningham Creek dam (Harden NSW, Australia 1912) - Dr Chanson inspecting the dam wall and spillway in December 1997 (Courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. Chanson) [Ref.: CHANSON and JAMES 1998, Research Rep. CE157]. More about Arch dams ... More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...
AD 1915- Fountaindale Creek dam (Kiama NSW, Australia 1915) on 25 Nov. 1999. More about Arch dams ...
AD 1916- Ancient sabo works near Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture (1895-1920). Artificial stepped channel designed by a Japanese engineer, modeled on Durance catchment works (construction : 1916-18). Photograph taken in Nov. 1998.
AD 1917- Korrumbyn Creek dam (Murwillumbah NSW, Australia). Photo No. 1 : View from downstream on 25 April 1997. Photo No. 2 : downstream view of the pipeline intake in April 1997. Photo No. 3 : Korrumbyn Creek downstream of Korrumbyn Creek dam on 18 Aug. 2002. Note the huge bed load material. Photo No. 4 : Fully-silted reservoir with the dam wall in the background, on 17 Aug. 2002. Photo No. 5 : Bed load material in the delta (upstream end) of the fully-silted reservoir on 17 Aug. 2002. Photo No. 6 : dam wall view from the road on 17 Aug. 2002. Before June 2001, the dam wall was not visible from the road, although the abutment is less than 10 m from the bitumen. Major floods in May/June 2001 flattened the sub-tropical rainforest occupying the reservoir. Photo No. 7 : Mount Warning on 18 Aug. 2002. The climb takes about 4 hours. Photo No. 8 : Korrumbyn Creek, looking downstrream during student field trip on 4 Sept. 2002. Photo No. 9 : Korrumbyn Creek dam during student field trip on 4 Sept. 2002. Photo No. 10 : Korrumbyn Creek reservoir, looking upstream during student field trip on 4 Sept. 2002
    Read the history of the dam: download PDF file. More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...
AD 1922- Lahontan dam stepped spillway (Nevada, USA 1922). Photo No. 1 : left spillway overflow on 31 May 1922 (Courtesy of US Bureau of Reclamation and Roy WINGATE). The left spillway consists of a series of 6 steps (h = 3.05 m, q = 26.6 deg., W = 76.3 m), a converging flat chute section and a curved stepped channel (3 steps, h = 3.05 m, l = 6.096 m, W = 45.72 m) with a curvature radius ranging from 39 to 50 m. Note the training walls. Photo No. 2 : aerial view of the dam and spillway in 1972 (Courtesy of US Bureau of Reclamation and Brit STOREY). More about Stepped spillway design ...

La Grande 2 cascade spillwayRoman waterworks
    Read more about the Hydraulics of Roman aqueducts ...
R1- Pont du Gard, Nîmes aqueduct, France in June 1998 - View from the right bank
R2- Gier aqueduct (Lyon, France)
        Le Mornantay (Mornant) in June 1998
        Chaponost in June 1998 : looking at the arcades from the head tank of the Beaunant siphon (i.e. looking toward the upstream)
R3- Les Peirou dam (France 1891) in June 1998 - The present dam was built on the foundation of the Roman arch dam at Glanum [Ref.: CHANSON and JAMES 1998, Research Rep. CE157]. More about Arch dam history ...
R6 - Brévenne aqueduct (Lyon France)
        Biternay in Sept. 2000, inside view looking upstream
R7- Nîmes aqueduct, France. Pont de Bordnègre in Sept. 2000 : inlet view, showing the bridge pier shaped to cut the waters. Culvert beneath the aqueduct between Combe de Sartanette and Combe Saint Joseph, downstream of Pont du Gard. Main culvert cell (0.8-m wide).
   
Read : "Hydraulics of a Large Culvert beneath the Roman Aqueduct of Nîmes." Jl of Irrigation and Drainage Engrg., ASCE, 2002, Vol. 128, No. 5, pp. 326-330 (Download PDF File).
R8- Fréjus aqueduct (France). Photo No. 1 : arches de Sainte Croix; Photo No. 2 : looking upstream; Photo No. 3 : looking dowsntream (14 Sept. 2000).
R9- Roman aqueduct at Pont-du-Gard, France in June 1998

Roman dropshaft ('puit de rupture')
rd1- Roman dropshaft in operation : Recret model (Aug. 1998) [Ref.:  CHANSON 2000, Am Jl Archaeology, CHANSON 2002, Jl of Hyd. Res.]
        Regime R1 : the usual operation mode in Roman aqueduct (photo dc/h = 0.06)
        Regime R2 : high risks of erosion and damage at the intake of downstream conduit (photo dc/h = 0.12)
        Regime R3 : at large flow rates, usual operation in modern sewer dropshaft (photo dc/h = 0.22)
rd2- Roman dropshaft in operation : Valdepuentes model (90-degree angled outlet) (Aug. 1999) [Ref.:  CHANSON 2000, Am Jl Archaeology, CHANSON 2002, Jl of Hyd. Res.]
rd3- Full scale hydraulic model of Roman dropshaft. Drop in invert elevation: 1.7 m, pool depth: 1 m, shaft dimensions: 0.75 m by 0.76 m, flow rates: 5 to 70 L/s. (Ref.: CHANSON 2004, Jl Irrigation & Drainage Engrg.)
        Regime R1 : photograph for Q = 7.6 L/s (July 2002)
        Regime R3 : photograph for Q = 67 L/s (Aug. 2002)

Air bubble entrainment in turbulent shear flows
Contemporary hydraulic structures
m1- Monteynard dam, (Drac river, France 1962) in June 1998 - Single-radius concrete arch (H = 155 m) built on the site of the fully-silted Avignonnet dam [Ref.: CHANSON and JAMES 1998, Research Rep. CE157]. More about Arch dams ..
m2- Split Rock dam spillway, (Tamworth NSW, Australia 1987) on 6 September 1998 - Flow from bottom to top (Courtesy of Mr. Noel BEDFORD)
m3- Benmore dam spillway (New Zealand). Photo No. 1 : view from dowsntream, "It's hard to believe from this photograph that the spillway was half a kilometer long." (Courtesy of Bill REA) - Photo No. 2 : flip bucket peration at 2,700 m3/s (Courtesy of Bill REA).
m4- Rubber dams
        Bedford weir (Qld, Australia) : 195-m long 1.45-m high rubber dam installed in 1997. Photo No. 1 : inspection of the inflated dam with deflector in 1997 (Courtesy of Queensland Rubber Company); Photo No. 2 : overflow of the inflated rubber dam in 1998(Courtesy of Queensland Rubber Company). Tucombil weir (Nsw, Australia) : 61-m long, 1.8-m high water filled rubber dam installed in the 1980s and dimantled in the early 2000s. The weir was built on the Tucombil canal to prevent tidal effects (i.e. salt intrusion) between the Richmond river and the Evans river systems. During large flood events, the weir was to be deflated to reduce flooding effects in the Rcihmond river catchment. First rubber dam built by Queensland Rubber Company; Photo No. 3 : fully-inflated weir on 2 Nov. 1997. More about Rubber dam hydraulics ...
m5- Chinchilla weir (Chinchilla QLD, Australia 1973). Photograph taken on 8 Nov. 1997 during low overflow. Minimum Energy Loss weir designed with the asistance of Professor Gordon McKAY. Weir height: 14 m, Crest length: 410m, Spillway capacity: 850 m3/s, Condamine river. More information : CHANSON, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999, pp. 417-421 & 316. More about Minimum Energy Loss weirs ...
m6- Lemontree weir (Cecil Plains QLD, Australia 1979). Photograph taken on 8 Nov. 1997. Minimum Energy Loss weir design on the Condamine river. More information : CHANSON, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999, pp. 417-421. More about Minimum Energy Loss weirs ...
m8- Dam spillways in Mexico : El Mahone or Miguel Hidalgo in Sinaloa state; Ticuitaco, Michoacán (From "Grandes Presas de México", C.N.A., courtesy of Mr V.H. Alcocer Yamanaka).
m9- Baffed chute dissipation structure immediatly off the beach, under bicycle path bridge on Irago Peninsula, Japan (27 Mar. 1999).
m10- Shasta dam (Redding, California, USA 1945). 183-m high curved gravity dam (more technical details). Photo No. 1 : General view of spillway with roll waves in Aug. 1999 (Courtesy of Daniel STEPHENS) - Photo No. 2 : Details of roll waves (Courtesy of Daniel STEPHENS) - Photo No. 3 : view from the crest looking at the plunge pool (Courtesy of Daniel STEPHENS).
m11- Surfing a hydraulic jump roller in the English Garden, Munich (Germany) - Photo No. 1 : a surfer departing from the left bank (Courtesy of Dale YOUNG). Photo No. 2 : looking downstream at a surfer (Courtesy of Dale YOUNG).
m12- Clyde dam spillway (NZ). Photo No. 1 : spillway during construction in March 1988. Note the scaffolding in the spillway aeration device. More about spillway aeration devices ...
m13- Foz Do Areia dam spillway (Brazil). H = 160 m, spillway slope: 14.5 deg. slope, design discharge: 11,000 m3/s, chute length: 400 m. Photo No. 1 : spillway in operation (flow from bottom to top), note the spillway aeration devices (Courtesy of Prof. N. PINTO). More about spillway aeration devices ...
m14- Itaipu dam spillway (Brazil/Paraguay). H = 196 m, Parana river, completed in 1982, Spillway slope: 10 deg., W=345 m, design discharge: 61,400 m3/s, equipped with 2 air slots. Photo No. 1 : spillway in operation (flow from bottom to top), note the air duct intakes on the left wall (Courtesy of Prof. N. PINTO). Photo No. 2 : Spillway in operation (Courtesy of Itaipu Binacional). Photo No. 3 : Flip bucket (Courtesy of Itaipu Binacional). More on Itaipu dam ...
        More about spillway aeration devices ...
m16- Drop structure (weir) operation in Japan. The small drop structure is located on the Futu-gawa river, Toyohashi, Japan about 500 m upstream of a major shopping center. Photo No. 1 : operation durng dry period on 23 Jan. 1999. Photo No. 2 : small overflow after 50-100 mm of rain during the past 24 hours, on 11 April 1999. Photo No. 3 : medium overflow in May 1999 after 150 mm of rainfall in the last 24 hours.
m16- Trigomil dam (Mexico). RCC dam: H = 61 m. Spillway: 51-degree slope, 75-m wide chute. Photo No. 1 : dam spillway in March 2002, note the spillway aeration device (Courtesy of Víctor Hugo Alcocer Yamanaka). Photo No. 2 : upstream face of the dam and spillway intake in March 2002 (Courtesy of Víctor Hugo Alcocer Yamanaka).
m17- Hinze dam (Gold Coast Qld, Australia). Photo No. 1 : spillway ogee crest during CIVL4120 student field trip on 4 Sept. 2002. Photo No. 2 : turning vanes at the downstream end of the steep chute, during CIVL4120 student field trip on 4 Sept. 2002. Hinze dam spillway (Stage 3) in operation on 29/1/2013 at 12:15, Q ~ 170 m3/s. Photo No. 1: View from downstream of the stepped spillway operation. Photo No. 2: View from upstream of the uncontrolled ogee and stepped chute operation.
m19- Swanbank Minimum Energy Loss spillway (Ipswich Qld, Australia 1965). Photo No. 1 : spillway inlet, view from the dam wall on 6 Sept. 2002. Photo No. 2 : spillway ogee, with the power station in background on 6 Sept. 2002. More about Minimum Energy Loss weirs ... More about Swanbank power plant.
m20- Sandy Creek at Clermont QLD (Australia 1963). Photo No. 1 : Early stages of construction in 1962 (Courtesy of Mr Keith JAMES). Photo No. 2 : Downstream face near completion in early 1963 (Courtesy of Mr Keith JAMES). Photo No. 3 : Workers on the downstream face near completion in 1963 (Courtesy of Mr Keith JAMES). Photo No. 4 : view from the right bank on 3 Sept. 2002 (Courtesy of Mr Keith JAMES). Photo No. 5 : detail of the crest intake on 3 Sept. 2002 (Courtesy of Mr Keith JAMES). Photo No. 6 : Flood overflow on 8 March 1993 (Courtesy of Mr A.J. HOLMES). Photo No. 7 : Flood overflow in Feb. 1999 (Courtesy of Mr A.J. HOLMES).   More information : CHANSON, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999, pp. 417-421. More about Minimum Energy Loss weirs ...

m21- Pertusillo dam (Italy, 1961). Arched gravity concrete dam: stability by a combination of gravity and arch . Arch opening angle : 116 deg., H = 95 m, L = 270 m, e = 3.50 m, E = 42 m. Catchment : 530 km2. Reservoir capacity : 155 Mm3. River Fiume Agri. Purpose : flood control, hydropower and drinking water supply (for Tarento, Bari ...). Spillway system: tunnel spillway on left bank. Photo No. 1 : view fron the right bank on 17 Feb. 2004. Photo No. 2 : scale model of the dam and valley, looking upstream; note mid-level outlet chute and ski jump on lef tof photograph. Photo No. 3: scale model of the dam, looking downstream; note spillway intake on left of photograph, on the left abutment. Photo No. 4 : mid-level outlet steep chute and ski jump, looking downstream on 17 Feb. 2004.
m22- Three Gorges Project and Dam (Yichang, China, 2002-2007). Concrete gravity dam. Length: 2300 m, Height: 181 m. Powerplant: 32 Francis turbines (700 MW each). Photo No. 1 : Overall view of the scale model of the project on 20 Oct. 2004, looking from the right bank; the dam wall is in white. Photo No. 2 : Dam wall viewed from the left abutment on 20 Oct. 2004. Photo No. 3 : Construction of the third section on 20 Oct. 2004; view from the dam crest above the spillway section, looking towards the right abutment. Photo No. 4 : Navigation  lock on 20 Oct. 2004; the navigation lock is a two-way system, with 5 locks each; each lock is 280 m long and 34 m wide. Photo No. 5 : Three Gorges Reservoir on 20  Oct. 2004, looking from the right bank at a hydrofoil passenger ship. Photo No. 6: scour outlet discharge below the spillway section on 20 Oct. 2004 (Q = 7000 m3/s, V = 35 m/s). Photo No. 7 : high-velocity flow from an outlet sluice on 20 Oct. 2004 (V = 35 m/s); note the large amount of 'white waters' highlighting strong free-surface aeration. Photo No. 8 : free-surface aeration along the bottom outlet jet flow downstream of the spillway section on 20 Oct. 2004 (V = 35 m/s). Photo No. 9: scale model of a 700 MW Francis turbine on 20 Oct. 2004.
m23- Barrier mitigation structure, Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the East Don River (2005). Trapezoidal drop structure and downstream rock chute ramp built in 2005 on the East Don river, Toronto, Ontario, Canada by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. The barrier is a concrete drop structure at the upstream end of a trapezoidal concrete channel.  The original objective of our project was to simply provide improved fish access over the drop structure using a rocky ramp structure. Coast Guard regulations stipulated that their approvals on the design would require that a portage be included in the works for canoists and kayakers around this drop structure.  As a conservation authority mandated to promote public safety around waterways. As a compromise, a downstrean rocky ramp  allows for canoe/kayak access over the drop structure, as well as provide fish access upstream. A notch was cut in the centre of the concrete drop structureto concentrate the baseflow and provide sufficient depth for a canoe or kayak to flow over the drop structure.  At very low flow conditions, it is simple for the canoists to walk their canoes down the centre of the ramp.
Photo No. 1 : structure on 19 Aug. 2005 after completion, taken just afew hours before a flood exceeding a 1:100 year event hit this section of the river, viewed from the right bank
(Coutesy of the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority 2005 and Kenneth DION). The structure largely remained intact during the flood event with only minor shifting of the materials.  Photo No. 2 : massive damage in the downstream trapezoidal channel after the 1:100 flood event (Coutesy of the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority 2005 and Kenneth DION).
m24- Chungju dam, Korea. Completed in 1985, the concrete gravity dam is 97.5 m high, 447 m long and it is equipped with 4 100-MW turbines. Located on the South Han river, the reservoir is multipurpose: flood control, hydropower and water supply. Photo No. 1 : Chungju dam on 14 Sept. 2005. Photo No. 2 : details of the Chungju dam spillway on 14 Sept. 2005. Photo No. 3 : Details of the spillway aeration devices; the second bottom slot is unnecessary. Photo No. 4 : Detail of the first aeration slot. More about Spillway aeration devices ....
m25- Chechen river dam, Pingtun county, Taiwan. Main water supply for the Pingtung county. Rockfill dam. Smooth chute spillway with ski jump and artificial plunge pool. Photo No. 1 : view from downstream on 21 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 2 : details of the spillway system on 21 Nov. 2006.
m26-
North Pine dam, Brisbane QLD (Australia). North Pine dam is a 40 m high concrete gravity dam; it is the main water suppy for the North of Brisbane. Spillway in operation on 22 May 2009 morning.  Photo No. 1: spillway overflow at 07:35. Photo No.2: details of the free-surface aeration on the chute.
m27-
Lake Kurwongbah dam (also called Sideling Creek dam). The dam is equipped with a Minimum Energy Loss spillway intake. Spilway operation on 22 May 2009 morning. Photo No.1: spillway intake with a very small overflow at 08:20. Photo No. 2: flip bucket operation; note the discharge confined to the low flow section. Spillway in operation on 29/1/2013 at 10:00. Photo No. 1: Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) inlet operation. Photo No. 2: Flip bucket and tailrace channel.
m28 - Somerset dam and spillway in operation on 28/1/2013 at 10:30 - Gates fully-opened (Q ~ 450 m3/s).
    More about Free surface aeration in hydraulic structures ...


Water treatment plants

wtt1- Molendinar Water Purification Plant (Gold Coast Qld, Australia). Photo No. 1 : plant operation during CIVL4120 student field trip on 4 Sept. 2002.
wtt2- Pertusillo drinking water treatment plant (Italy). Photo No. 1 :  Riser in operation on 17 Feb. 2004. Photo No. 2 : Dry riser on 17 Feb. 2004. Photo No. 3 : Ventury system at the outflow of the treatment plant on 17 Feb. 2004.

Environmental hydraulics of open channel flow

Culverts
cv1- Standard culverts
    Photo No. 1 : outlet of a circular pipe culvert along Gap Creek Rd, The Gap, Brisbane Australia. Photo No. 2 : culvert inlet operation in St Lucia next to the golf course (flow from right to left) on 31 Dec. 2001. Photo No. 3 : physical model of box culvert  in operation at design flow rate (flow from bottom to top). Photo No. 4 : box culvert at oxenford on 18-09-2003. Reference : CHANSON (1999), "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an Introduction", Butterworth-Heinemann; Subject CIVL3140 Catchment hydraulics.

Minimum energy loss (MEL) culverts and waterways
cv10- Structure No. 01 : MEL culvert No. MEL-C-2 (CHANSON 1999). Design discharge : 220 m3/s. Located along Norman Creek underneath SE Freeway parallel to Birdwood St, Brisbane (Australia). Inlet, looking from the left bank on 13 May 2002.
cv11- Structure No. 02 : MEL culvert No. MEL-C-3 (CHANSON 1999). Design discharge : 220 m3/s, 7 cells of 2-m width each. Located along Norman Creek underneath Ridge St, Brisbane (Australia). Inlet, looking from the right bank. Note the handrail alongthe bicycle/footpath passing in one cell. Field trip with students in Aug. 2000. Culvert outlet during field trip with students in Aug. 2001 (Courtesy of Mr A.K. ABDULLAH SANI). Outlet viewed from downstream on 13 May 2002 (Courtesy of C. HINTON). Inlet operation and Outlet operation on 31 Dec. 2001 after a rainstorm (Q ~ 60-70 m3/s). Approach flood plain during field work on 13 May 2002, note the outlet of the MEL-W-1 waterway in the background. Inlet during survey on 13 May 2002. Downstream flood plain on 13 May 2002. Outlet during CIVL3140 field trip on 18-09-2003: Photo No.1, Photo No. 2, Photo No. 3. Operation on 7 Nov. 2004: flood flow (80-100 m3/s) after 60-150 mm of rainfall in less than 3 hours: Photo No. A1: outlet of the Ridge St MEL culvert (MEL-C-3) on 7 Nov. 2004, looking upstream; Photo No. A2: inlet operation, looking downstream; Photo No. A3: inlet operation, looking upstream from the culvert embanment; note the MEL waterway No. MEL-W-1 in background. Outlet during CIVL3140 field trip on 5 Sept. 2007 : Photo 1 & Photo 2. Culvert operation during the floods on 20 May 2009: Photo No.1: inlet operation around 09:10. Photo No.2: inlet operation at 11:00; note the larger flow rate through the culvert and the hydraulic jump roller in the foreground.  CIVL3140 student field trip on 9 Sept. 2009: students walking in the outlet with the low-flow drain in the foreground.      More about Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) Culverts and bridge waterways ...
cv12- Structure No. 03 : MEL waterway No. MEL-W-1 (CHANSON 1999). Design discharge : 200 m3/s, barrel width : 10 m. Located on Norman Creek underneath the S-E freeway beneath Ridge St. Looking upstream at the outlet and barrel. Outlet operation (view from downstream) on 31 Dec. 2001 after a rainstorm (Q ~ 60-70 m3/s). Field trip by CIVL4510 students (where are they?) on 13 May 2002. Operation on 7 November 2004 : flood flow (80-100 m3/s) after 60-150 mm of rainfall in less than 3 hour: Photo No. a1: MEL water MEL-W-1 barrel in operation on 7 Nov. 2004, looking downstream; note the standing wave flow; Photo No. a2: inlet operation, view from right bank;  Photo No. a3: outlet operation, looking upstream. CIVL3140 student field trip on 9 Sept. 2009: student group in front of the inlet.       More about Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) Culverts and bridge waterways ...
cv13- Structure No. 04 : MEL culvert No. MEL-C-6 (CHANSON 1999). Design discharge : 36 m3/s, Barrel width : 5.5 m, Barrel length : 137 m, Invert drop : 1.2 m. MEL culvert at Redcliffe (Australia) between the shopping center and the sea. View of the outlet looking at the Moreton Bay.        More about Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) Culverts and bridge waterways ...
cv14- MEL culvert No. MEL-C-4 (CHANSON 1999). Design discharge : ~220 m3/s. MEL culvert beneath the Gateway motorway (Brisbane, Australia). Photo No. 1 : inlet on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip. Photo No. 2 : inlet wingwall on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip.     More about Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) Culverts and bridge waterways ...
cv15- MEL culvert No. MEL-C-5 (CHANSON 1999). Design discharge : ~100 m3/s. MEL culvert beneath the Gateway motorway (Brisbane, Australia). Photo No. 1 : inlet on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip. Photo No. 2 : students in inlet channel on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip. Photo No. 3 : students at the dowsntream end of the barrel on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip.    More about Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) Culverts and bridge waterways ...

cv21 - Structure No. 05 : MEL culvert No. MEL-C-X2, Ekibin Park, on Norman Creek. Design discharge : 220 m3/s. Built in 1971. Located underneath South-East Freeway. Inlet survey during Field survey CIVL4510 on Mon 13 May 2002. Inlet during CIVL3140 field trip on 18-09-2003. CIVL3140 student field trip on 9 Sept. 2009: Inlet of the MEL culvert, looking upstream; Outlet of of the MEl culvert.
cv22 - Structure No. 06 : MEL culvert No. MEL-C-X1 (CHANSON 1999), Cornwall St, on Norman Creek. Upstream flood plain on 13 May 2002. Inlet survey during field survey CIVL4510 on Mon. 13 May 2002.

            More about Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) Culverts and bridge waterways ...    Bibliographic references : APELT (1983), CHANSON (1999), CHANSON (2000), CHANSON (2001)

Stepped spillways and chutes
Historical stepped spillways
BC 1,300- Arkananian stepped weir (Greece BC 1,300) : the world's oldest stepped spillway (Courtesy of Professor KNAUSS). Note the watermill on the foreground and the new concrete road in the background [Ref.: CHANSON 1997, ANCOLD Bulletin No. 106]
AD 1150- Storm waterway at Miya-jima (Japan) - Photo No. 1 : storm waterway below below Senjò-kaku wooden hall on 19 Nov. 2001. The stepped chute is steep (slope > 45 deg., h ~ 0.4 m). The Senjò-kaku wooden hall was built by Kyomori (AD 1168) and left unfinished at his death. It is likely that the waterway design dates from the 12th century.
AD 1650- Khaju bridge weir, Iran in 1997 (Courtesy of Dr Zarrati), built in AD 1650 during the Safavid era in Persia (123-m long, 24 arches). (Dam name also spelled Khadju or Khadjoo.)
AD 1834- Tillot dam (France 1834), built as a feeder of the Canal de Bourgogne. It is equipped with a stepped spillway (design flow rate : 19 m3/s) with converging sidewalls. View from upstream in January 1997.
AD 1870- Malmsbury dam spillway (Bendigo VIC, Australia 1870). The Eastern (right) spillway was Australia's first large stepped spillway. It is still in use. [Ref.: CHANSON 1997, ANCOLD Bulletin No.106 ] More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD 1882- Le Pont dam (France 1882). Dam and spillway designed by H. BAZIN. Stepped spillway with circular step crests and pooled steps. Photograph taken in June 1998. More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD 1890- Gold Creek dam spillway (Australia 1890). The Gold Creek dam spillway is the world's first concrete stepped spillway. It was built in non-reinforced concrete and it is still in use (CHANSON & WHITMORE 1998, Can J Civ Eng). The spillway crest was refurbished a number of times but the original stepped chute is intact. The dam is located in Brookfield, Brisbane QLD. Gold Creek dam stepped spillway in operation in May 1996 : View from downstream, view from left bank, view from right bank bottom. Overflow in May 1996 - View from left bank. Field trip with students on 9 Sept. 1998. Field trip with students in Aug. 2000. More about Gold Creek dam and its historical stepped spillway ... See listing in Structurae.
AD 1891- Goulburn weir (Victoria, Australia 1891). Photo No. 1 : weir overflow prior to the gate refurbihsment - Photo No. 2 : View from left bank, with one opened gate (Q=5 m3/s) on 30 Jan. 2000  [Ref.: CHANSON 1995]. More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD1891- La Tâche dam (France 1891). Unlined rock stepped cascade, photograph taken in Dec. 1994. (Also called Chartrain dam). More about Stepped spillway design ...
AD1905- New Croton dam stepped spillway (New York NY, USA 1905). Photo No. 1 : in July 1999 (Courtesy of Mrs J. HACKER) (Ref.: CHANSON 2001, Balkema). Completed in 1905 for the water supply of New York city, the 90.5-m high dam was the world's tallest dam at the time. It was equipped with a stepped spillway (capacity: 1550 m3/s). In October 1955, the spillway was heavily damaged by a water release of about 650 m3/s. (Ref.: CHANSON 1995, Pergamon, pp. 189-191). The spillway was subsequently repaired and it is still used. The stepped cascade appeared in the movie "Daylight" (1996), starring Sylvester Stallone.
AD 1905 - Urft dam (Germany). The 91 m wide chute was cut into the rock and lines with concrete. The maximum discharge capacity is 220 m3/s. Photo No. 1: general view of the dam and spillway on 22 Feb. 2013. Photo No. 2: detail of the spillway non-linear crest on 22 Feb. 2013. Photo No. 3 : stepped spillway on 22 Feb. 2013.
AD 1911 - Croton Falls dam stepped spillway (USA, 1911)). Completed in 1911, the reservoir is part of New York City water supply system. The stepped spillway is 213 m wide (h = 0.61 m) and it is equipped with rounded steps (CHANSON 1995, p. 31, 39 &202). Photo No.1 and No. 2: Overflow in March 2001 (Courtesy of Mrs J. HACKER).
AD 1916- Ancient sabo works near Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture (Japan 1895-1920). Artificial stepped channel designed by a Japanese engineer, modeled on Durance catchment works (construction : 1916-18). Photograph taken in Nov. 1998.
AD 1922- Lahontan dam stepped spillway (Nevada, USA 1922). Photo No. 1 : left spillway overflow on 31 May 1922 (Courtesy of US Bureau of Reclamation and Roy WINGATE). The left spillway consists of a series of 6 steps (h = 3.05 m, q = 26.6 deg., W = 76.3 m), a converging flat chute section and a curved stepped channel (3 steps, h = 3.05 m, l = 6.096 m, W = 45.72 m) with a curvature radius ranging from 39 to 50 m. Note the training walls. Photo No. 2 : aerial view of the dam and spillway in 1972 (Courtesy of US Bureau of Reclamation and Brit STOREY). More about Stepped spillway design ...

Modern stepped chute designs
ss1- Joe Sippel weir (Murgon QLD, Australia) - Completed in 1984, the 6.5-m high stepped weir is used for irrigation and water regulation purposes. The structure was built of steel sheet piles and concrete slabs. It is located upstream of the Silverleaf weir.
Photo No. 1: in November 1997. Photo No. 2:  on 5 March 2013. Photo No. 3: details of the plung point on 5 March 2013.
ss2- La Grande 2 spillway (Québec,Canada) - Unlined rock stepped cascade in operation in 1983: Photo No. 1, view from downstream (Courtesy of Michel Lefebvre) - Photo No. 2 : view of the upstream steps (Courtesy of Michel Lefebvre).
ss3 Melton dam overflow stepped spillway (Melton VIC, Australia 1916). The Melton dam is an earthfill structure. Completed in 1916, the dam was heightened twice because of the rapid reservoir siltation. During the last refurbishment in 1994, an overflow stepped spillway was added. Photo No. 1 : general view (30 Jan. 2000). Photo No. 2 : details of the dam overflow spillway (30 Jan. 2000). More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...
ss4- Riou dam (France 1990). RCC stepped spillway : h = 0.43 m. Photo No. 1 : view from downstream at sunset (photograph taken in Nov. 1994). Photo No. 2 : view from right bank (photograph taken in Nov. 1994). Photo No. 3 : view from the right bank of the crest, chute and stillign basin in June 1998. Photo No. 4 : view from downstream in June 1998. More information ...
ss5- Santa Cruz arch dam stepped spillway (New Mexico, USA). Completed in 1929, the Santa Cruz dam was a masonry arch dam. In 1987, the dam was reinforced by concrete buttresses and roller compacted concrete. A new overfflow stepped spillway was built between two buttresses (Design: 56 m3/s) (Courtesy of US Bureau of Reclamation and John LABOON). More information ...
ss6- Jordan II weir (Gatton QL, Australia 1992). Reinforced-earth stepped overflow weir (H = 5.3 m). Photograph in Feb. 1998.
ss11- Brushes Clough dam spillway (1859-1991). Overflow embankment spillway system with precast concrete blocks. Photo No. 1 : General view in 1993 (Courtesy of Mr GARDINER, NWW). Photo No. 2 : details of the concrete blcoks, showing the drainage holes (Courtesy of Mr GARDINER). More about Embankment overflow stepped spillways: earth dam spillways with precast concrete blocks...
ss12- Zaraysk dam (also called Laraisky), Russia (Courtesy of Prof. Y. PRAVDIVETS). Overflow embankment spillway made of precast concrete blocks. More about Embankment overflow stepped spillways: earth dam spillways with precast concrete blocks...
ss13- Loyalty Road Flood Retarding dam spillway (Sydney NSW, Australia, 1996) - Photo No. 1 : view from the right bank (Courtesy of D.Patrick JAMES). Photo No. 2 : view from downstream (Courtesy of D.Patrick JAMES). Dam height : 30 m. RCC construction. Spillway capacity : 1,040 m3/s. Chute width : 30 m.
ss14- Chechen weir, Pingtung county, Taiwan. Built on the Chechen river about 5 km upstream of the river mouth, the diversion weir was built for irrigation purposes with diversion canals on both left and right banks. Also called Chechung weir. Photo No. 1 : view from the left bank in Dec. 1998. Photo No. 2 : view from the left bank on 21 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 3 : view from left bank on 21 Nov. 2006; compare this view with the
Photo No. 1.
ss18- Bucca weir(Bucca QLD, Australia 1987) (H. CHANSON, 23 Dec. 2001). RCC irrigation weir on the Kolan river.
ss19- Neil Turner weir (Mitchell QLD, Australia 1984). 5.9 m high stepped weir on the Maranoa river. Photo No. 1 : general view in July 2001 (Courtesy of Chris PROCTOR). Photo No. 2 : detail of steps in July 2001 (Courtesy of Chris PROCTOR).
ss20- Salado 10 embankment dam and secondary stepped spillway (Courtesy of Craig SAVELA and 
USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service; National Design, Construction and Soil Mechanics Center, Fort Worth, Texas).
ss21- Choctaw 8A embankment dam and secondary stepped spillway (Courtesy of Craig SAVELA and USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service; National Design, Construction and Soil Mechanics Center, Fort Worth, Texas).
ss22- Robina, Gold Coast (Australia 1996) - Stepped weirs built along an artifical storm watercourse around the Robina shopping twon QLD. Photo No. 1 :  Construction of the first weir (weir No. 5) in April 1996.  Note the installation of aprecast step over a coarse-aggregate concrete serving as a drainage layer over the embankment and the crane is at about the elevation of the weir crest. Photo No. 2 :  Small overflow above the same weir No. 5 on 3 Feb. 2003.
ss23- Les Olivettes dam, Vailhan
(France 1987) - RCC dam (36 m high, 254 m long) for flood mitigation (catchment area: 29.5 km2) - Stepped spillway: h = 0.6 m, ogee crest, W = 40 m, Qmax = 290 m3/s, energy dissipation: steps + dowsntream plunge pool. Photo No. 1 : view from left bank in March 2003 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). Photo No. 2 : view from downstream, with the counterweir and plunge pool in foreground in March 2003 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). Photo No. 3 : view from the left bank in March 2003 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON).
ss24- Pedrogao dam, Moura (Portugal, 2006). Completed in March 2006, the Pedrogao dam is a RCC gravity dam (H = 43 m, L = 473 m) with an uncontrolled overflow stepped spillway (h = 0.6 m, 1V:0.75H). The dam is equipped also witha  fish lock/lift. The reservoir is located immediately downstream of the Alqueva dam which is multipurpose reservoir for irrigation (326 km of open channels, 9 main pump stations)
and hydropower (2 * 130 MW pump-turbines). Photo No. 1 : view from right bank on 4 Seopt. 2006. Photo No. 2 : view from left bank on 4 Sept. 2006.
ss25-
Hinze dam spillway (Stage 3) in operation on 29/1/2013 at 12:15, Q ~ 170 m3/s. Photo No. 1: View from downstream of the stepped spillway operation. Photo No. 2: View from upstream of the uncontrolled ogee and stepped chute operation.
ss26- Paradise dam, Biggeden QLD (Australia) - RCC gravity dam equipped with  an uncontrolled stepped spillway. Photo No. 1: General view of the spillway on 5 March 2013. Photo No. 2: View of the spillway and stilling basin operation on 5 March 2013. Photo No. 3: Details of the free-surface next to the inception of free-surface aeration on the stepped spillway on 5 March 2013. Photo No. 4: turbulence and air-water flow in the stilling basin on 5 March 2013.

ss30- Stepped road gutter systems : another application of the stepped chute design. Photo No. 1 : steep gutter along the Western freeway, Brisbane (Photograph taken in Dec. 1999). Photo No. 2 : double road gutter looking downstream, next to Sumner Rd freeway entrance, between Darra and Mt Ommaney, Brisbane (Photogaph taken in Nov. 1996).
    Read 
"Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in a Stepped Storm Waterway: an Experimental Study." Jl of Irrigation and Drainage Engrg., ASCE, 2002, Vol. 128, No. 5, pp. 305-315 (Download PDF File).

ss40- Artifical stepped cascade at Biloela (QLD, Australia). Design flow: 390 m3/s, step height: 2 m, width: 100 m. Photo No. 1 : General view shortly after construction in 2002 (Courtesy of Dr John MACINTOSH). Photo No. 2 : View of a step arrangement, from the right bank (Courtesy of Dr John MACINTOSH). Photo No. 3 :  1:16 scale model, based upon a Froude similitude (Courtesy of Dr John MACINTOSH). Photo No. 4 : physical model in operation for Q = 10 L/s (20 m3/s prototype); all the water flows as seepage; the colours are paint sprayed on the rockfill to visualise erosion and scour. Photo No. 5 : physical model in operation for Q = 103 L/s (210 m3/s prototype); note overflows and seepage, and the hydraulic jump downstream of the plunge point.

ss50- Research on stepped spillways at the University of Queensland : 22º slope, h = 0.10 m, l = 0.25 m, W = 1 m, q = 0.103 m2/s, dc/h = 1.0. Photo No. 1 : View from upstream looking towards the inception point of air entrainment. Photo No. 2: Side view (Y90 = 0.078 m, Cmean = 0.48, Fmax = 149 Hz at the probe location) (Photographs taken on 7 July 2000). Photo No. 3 : dc/h = 1.5 (flow from left to right, run Q23). Photo No. 4 : dc/h = 1.1 (run Q21). Photo No. 5 : dc/h = 0.7 (run Q22). (Download the full results as PDF files : Part 1 and Part 2)
ss51- Research on stepped spillways at the University of Queensland : 16º slope, h = 0.10 m, l = 0.35 m, W = 1 m. Photo No. 1 : Nappe flow (without hydraulic jump NA3) for dc/h = 0.64.

Timber crib weirs
ss7- Whetstone weir (Inglewood QLD, Australia 1951) at low flow (H. CHANSON, Feb. 1998) - Timber crib stepped weir (H = 5 m) on the Macintyre Brook, completed in 1951. A major flood occurred in 1956, the maximum recorded stream height being 11.8 m at Inglewood. More about Timber crib weirs ...
ss17- Silverleaf weir (Murgon QLD, Australia 1953) (H. CHANSON, Nov. 1997) - Timber crib stepped weir (H = 5.1 m) on the Barambah Creek.
ss8- Cunningham weir (Texas QLD, Australia 1953) in operation (H. CHANSON, Feb. 1998) - Timber-crib stepped weir (H = 4 m) on the Dumaresq river, completed in 1954. During a major flood in 1956, the maximum recorded head-above-crest reached 7.3 m. The weir was little damaged and it is still in use. See listing in Structurae.
ss9- Greenup weir (Inglewood QLD, Australia 1958) at low flow (H. CHANSON, Feb. 1998) - Timber crib stepped weir (H = 5 m) on the Macintyre Brook, completed in 1958, upstream of Whetstone weir. More about Timber crib weirs ...

HANDBOOK : "The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and Spillways" (Balkema 2001)

        See also Historical/heritage structures , Cascades, water staircases and fountains (cascades, fontaines, bassin)
        More about Gold Creek dam and its historical stepped spillway ...    More about Air entrainment on chute and stepped spillways ...     More about Embankment overflow stepped spillways: earth dam spillways with precast concrete blocks...

Fujigawa (Japan)Check dams and debris dams
cd1- Mount Fuji Sabo works. (1) Osawa-gawa. The Osawa creek is located beneath the main fault on the western side of Mount Fuji. (Mount Fuji. last erupted in 1707.) Major debris flows took place in summer 2000. Photo No. 1 : debris material region on Osawa-gawa on 1 Nov. 2001. Photo No. 2 : debris material on 1 Nov. 2001, note the concrete blocks and excavators working behind to remove debris. Photo No. 3 : exploded concrete "tetrapod" block (1 Nov. 2001). Photo No. 4 : concrete river training downstream of the debris flow region.
    Read more about Sabo check dams ...
cd2- Mount Fuji Sabo works. (2) Inokubo-kawa Kikan Sabo system. The Inokubo stream is located on the Western slope of Mt Fuji, close to Osawa-gawa and Urui river. A major debris retention system, called Inokubo-kawa Kikan, was in construction in Nov. 2001. The system includes a flat, wide flood plain area to store large material and a slit check dam downstream. The slit check dam is 104 m wide and 7 m high. Photo No. 1 : slit check dam on 1 Nov. 2001. Photo No. 2 : slit check dam, view from the right bank on 1 Nov. 2001. Note the 6 openings (flow from left to right). Photo No. 3 : river training on Inokubo stream upstream of  Inokubo-kawa Kikan.
    Read more about Sabo check dams ...
cd3- Rhyd-y-Car Land Reclamation cascade. Design flow : 10 m3/s. Located at Merthyr Tydfil town centre (approx. 50 km North of Cardiff, UK) (Courtesy of Steve BRIGHT).
cd4- Stepped diversion weir on Chechen river, Taiwan in December 1998
cd5- Stepped channel below a Sabo dam (Toyohashi, Japan) built to protect a temple and a kindergarden. The footpaths on each side were designed to act as flood plains during extreme events.
cd8- Stepped storm water way (Hong Kong). Stepped water waterway under Hatton road, below Hong Kong University (photograph in Sept. 1994).
cd9- Debris dams and mountain protection systems (Sabo)
        Sabo works, in the Hayagawa catchment (Japan) in November 1998
        Permeable Sabo work off Takatoyo beach, Enshu coast on 30 January 1999
cd10- Stepped weir on Fuji-gawa river. Photo No. 1 : general view from downstream, with the hydropower intake on the left bank on 2 Nov. 2001. Photo No. 2 : close up view on 2 Nov. 2001.
cd11- La Motte-du-Caire, Durance catchment (France). Photographs taken in June 1998.  Debris dams on the road to La Motte-du-Caire. Concrete check dam upstream of the fully-silted Saignon dam, La Motte-du-Caire (CHANSON 1999, Butterworth-Heinemann). The Saignon dam reservoir (1961, H=17 m, volum:1.8E+5 m3) became fully-silted in less than 2 years despite upstream check dams. View from the right bank of the dam, looking upstream. The reservoir is located in a black marl catchment (3.5 km2 area).
cd12- Sabo check dams above Matsumoto township, Nagano Prefecture. Photographs taken in Nov. 1998. Modern concrete (timber facing) structure above the town. Older steel permeable sabo check dam located upstream of the first structure.
cd13- Sabo works near Mitomi town, Yamanashi prefecture. Photographs taken in Nov. 1998. Stepped river training. Medium-size sabo check dam on the left slope of Nishizawa-keikoku river.
cd14- Sabo works downstream of a road bridge on Kagokawa river, Japan (Nov. 1998).
cd15- Sabo works in the Hiakari-gawa catchment, Toyota, Aichi prefecture  Combination of an upstream tubular grid check dam (H = 9 m, L = 55 m, 2 elements) with a downstream concrete check dam (H = 7 m, L = 52 m) in the . Details of the tubular structure. Photographs taken on 10 Nov. 2001.
cd 16- Tubular grid check dam in the Hiakari-gawa catchment, Toyota, Aichi prefecture. Tubular grid check dam (H = 9 m, L = 60 m, 5 elements) located upstream of concrete check dam (H = 6 m, L = 53 m)e. View from the left abutment. The concrete check dam is followed by a stepped waterway in the middle of camping gorunds (Photo No. 3). Photographs taken on 10 Nov. 2001. Photo No. 4 : series of an upstream tubular grid check dam (H = 7 m, L = 52 m) and a downstream concrete check dam (H = 9 m, L  60 m) on 10 Nov. 2001. H. CHANSON stands on the downstream concrete check dam.
cd17- Sabo works East of Okazaki city, Aichi prefecture. Empty check dam . Downstream, the stream is channelised in a stepped waterway in the middle of a residential area. Photographs taken on 10 Nov. 2001.
cd18- Sabo works near Tahara, Irago peninsula, Aichi. Old check dam that has fullfilled its role near Tahara, Irago peninsula, Aichi prefecture. Downstream stepped waterway in the middle of sporting grounds. Photographs taken on 11 Nov. 2001.
cd19- River training at Ruisseau de la Ravoire, Pontamafrey-Notre-Dame du Châtel (France). Photo No. 1 : river training immediately upstream of the tilting bridg
e on 11/2/04.
cd20- Check dams and river training, Ruisseau Ravin de St Julien, St-Julien-Mont-Denis (France). Photo No. 1 : river training in
St-Julien-Mont-Denis on 11/2/2004; note the slit check dam in background. Photo No. 2 : slit check dam looking downstream.
cd21- Check dam and sediment retention basin,
Ruisseau St Bernard, Saint-Martin-de-la-Porte (France). Photo No 1:  looking upstream on 11/2/04.
cd22- Sediment load in an artificial channel beneath the Autoroute de Maurienne, France on 11/2/2004.
cd23-
Sabo works and check dams in Jogangi River catchment, Japan. Located South of Toyama City, the river catchment is very steep and affected by massive sediment motion processes. Photo No. 1 : Sabo works on the Jogangi River immediately downstream of a series of train and road bridges on 12 Nov. 2008; note the train passing the bridge. Photo No. 2 : Sabo works on a tributary of Jogangi River on 12 Nov. 2008; the photograph was taken upstream of Photo No. 1.

    See also Sabo check dams in Japan ...    &   Extreme reservoir siltation ...
Read "The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and Spillways" (Balkema 2001)

Dam break waves and debris flows
db01- Sketch of a dam break wave in a horizontal channel with bed friction (after CHANSON 2005)   Read more about Dam break wave fluid dynamics ...
db02- Dam break wave down an inclined channel with bed friction (after CHANSON et al. 2004)
db11-
St Francis dam (USA 1928). Photo No. 1 : view of remnant part after dam collapse. Completed in 1926 near Los Angeles, the 62.5-m high gravity dam completed in 1926 was equipped with a stepped spillway (width: 67 m). The dam wall failed on 12 March 1928 because of foundation failure. More than 450 people died in the catastrophe. (Ref.: CHANSON 1995, Pergamon, pp. 191-193).   Read more about Dam break wave fluid dynamics ...
db12- Malpasset dam (Fréjus, France 1959). Photo No. 1, Photo No. 2 : in Dec. 1981 (taken by H. CHANSON). Completed at the end of 1953, the 102-m high arch dam (double curvature) had a maximum reservoir capacity of about 50 Mm3. On 2 Dec. 1959, the dam wall failed and more than 450 people died in the catastroph. The failure was caused by uplift pressures in the rock foundation (left abutment).   Read more about Dam break wave fluid dynamics ...
db13- Mohne dam (Germany). Completed in 1913, the curved gravity dam was 650 m long and 40 m high, with a storage capcity of 134.5 E+6 m3. The dam hit and badly damaged by the "dam busters" during Word War II on 16/17th May 1943. Almost 1,300 people died in the floods following the dam buster campaign, mostly inmates of a Prisoner of War (POW) camp just below the dam. The dam breach was 23 m high and 77 m long. Photo No. 1 : Mohne dam break damage during the reconstuction in less than 4 months in 1943 (Courtesy of Ruhrverband, Essen, Germany).
db14- Sorpe dam (Germany) Built between 1926 and 1935, the embankment dam was 69 m high and 700 m long. It was built with a concrete core. The reservoir storage capacity is 70.8 E+6 m3 for a catchment area of 100 km2 [extended] (53 km2 [original]). The dam was little damaged by the "dam buster" campaign. Photo No. 1 : Removal of an unexploded 5-tons 1943 bomb during the Sorpe dam refurbishment in 1959 (Courtesy of Ruhrverband, Essen, Germany).
db21- Dam break wave of non-Newtonian thixotropic fluid - Sudden release of bentonite suspension on an inclined plane (15 deg.) (Ref. CHANSON et al. 2004, 2006). Photo No. 1 : Test 3, 15 deg. slope, 15% bentonite mass concentration, dam break after 1 minute relaxation, photograph taken after fluid stoppage. Photo No. 2 : Test 15, 15 deg. slope, 17% bentonite mass concebtration, dam break after 1 min. relaxation, photograph taken after fluid stoppage. Photo No. 3 : Test 5, 15 deg. slope, 15% bentonite mass concentration, dam break after 1 minute relaxation, "roll waves" formed during clean upof the channel.  
Read more about Sabo check dams ...
    Read more about Dam break wave fluid dynamics ...
        Read more about Sabo check dams ...

Canals
can1- Canal du Midi (France). Completed in 1680 by Pierre-Paul RIQUET (1604-1680), the Canal du Midi links the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The Canal du Midi starts near Béziers and ends at Toulouse, where it si contimnued by the Canal Latéral de la Garonne. The latter flows parallel to the Garonne river between Toulouse and Langon. Photo No. 1 : Les 9 Ecluses (locks) de Fonserannes, Béziers (H = 21.18 m, L = 298.1 m) on 20 Feb. 2004 looking upstream. Photo No. 2 : dry section of the canal downstream of the Fonserannes locks on 20 Feb. 2004. This section is disused since 1857. Photo No. 3 : Pente d'eau (water lift) at Fonserannes, Bézier on 20 Feb. 2004. Photo No. 4 : Bief de Partage des Eaux (Dividing catchment section) at Port-Lauragais on 20 Feb. 2004, looking West.
can2- Canal de Lachine / Lachine Canal, Montréal (Canada). Built in 1821, the canal is 13 km long, 5.5 m deep and the total head difference is 15.9 m. It was designed for shipping navigation on the Saint Laurent river around the Lachine Rapids (see Photographs). It was disused since the completion of the Saint Laurent Seaway. Photo No. 1 : Lock No. 2 at the downstream end of the canal on 8 May 2004, looking at the City of
Montréal in bckground. Photo No. 2 : Looking upstream of lock No. 2 on 8 May 2004. Photo No. 3 : looking downstream of Saint Gabriel lock on 8 May 2004. Photo No. 4 : Daniel McAllister tug on 8 May 2004; the tug used to pull/push barges along the canal. Photo No. 5 : Pont C.N. du Port, pivoting steel structure, downstream of Ecluse de Saint-Gabriel, Lachine canal on 8 May 2004.

Pipes, Conduits and Pipelines
pp1- Trans-Alaska pipeline
Completed in 1978, the pipeline (1.2 m diameter) is about 1,300 km and carries about 320,00 m3 of crude oil per day Elevated sections have a zig zag configuration to allow for expansion or contraction of the pipe because of temperature changes. The design also allows for pipeline movement caused by an earthquake. Drag Reduction Agents (DRA) are injected into the oil to reduce the energy loss (more info : (1) ).
Photo No. 1 : along the Richardson Highway just north of Paxson, AK, in Sept. 2000 (Courtesy of Steve STAPP). Photo No. 2 : near Fairbanks, AK, in Sept. 2000 (Courtesy of Steve STAPP). Photo No. 3 : along the Richardson Highway just north of Paxson, AK, in Sept. 2000 (Courtesy of Steve STAPP). Note the heat exchangers to prevent thawing of the permafrost and the zig zag configuration to allow for expansion or contraction of the pipe because of temperature changes

pp2- Tarraleah power plant (Tasmania, Australia)
The power plant is equipped with 6 Pelton turbines and the installed power is 90 MW. Photo No. 1 : conduits and surge tanks in background in Jan. 2002 (Courtesy of Dr P. NIELSEN). Photo No. 2 : details of the surge tanks which are at least 20 m high (Courtesy of Dr Peter NIELSEN).

Hydrology & Storms

Sediment processes in catchments

sp1- Massive soil erosion pattern : the "Moon walk", Kaohsiung county (Taiwan). Photo No. 1 :  general view in Sept. 1995. Photo No. 2 : detail of a rile in Sept. 1995.


Floods in Brisbane and South East Queensland (Australia) on 20-22 May 2009

fb01 - Norman Creek, Brisbane on 20 May 2009.  Photo No.1: Ridge Street MEL culvert inlet operation around 09:10. Photo No.2: Ridge Street MEL culvert inlet operation at 11:00; note the larger flow rate through the culvert and the hydraulic jump roller in the foreground.
fb02 -  Logan River (between Brisbane and Beaudesert) on 21 May 2009.
Photo No.1: Logan River downstream of Maclean bridge, view from the left bank at 08:20. Photo No. 2: Sign of the 1887 and 1947 flood levels with the Maclean bridge in the background. Photo No. 3: Logan River downstream of Larry Storey Bridge, Waterford West at 09:50.
fb03 -
Oxley Creek, Brisbane on 21 May 2009: Photo No. 1: downstream part of the culvert beneath Sherwood Road, Rocklea at 07:20. Photo No. 2: looking downstream of the Sherwood Road culvert at 07:20; Photo No. 3: Oxley Creek at Archerfield, Beaty Road on at 07:40, looking downstream.
fb04 - Kedron Brook, Brisbane on 22 May 2009. Photo No. 1: Kedron Brook at Osborne Road, Mitchelton at 09:15; looking downstream at the creek and debris left in Teralba Park. Photo No. 2 : wooden debris jammed in a tree.
fb05 - Enoggera Creek, Brisbane on 22 May 2009 morning. Photo No. 1: debris trapped by Greesham Street bridge, St Johns Wood, Ashgrove; the street was under water on the 20 May 2009, and the bridge was re-opened on the 21 May. Photo No. 2: details of debris left in the bridge footpath after the road cleanup;
note the flattened handrails; the creek flows from right to left. Photo No. 3 : looking upstream at tge Greesham Street bridge.
fb06 - Ithaca Creek, Brisbane on 22 May 2009. Photo No. 1: creek downstream of Fulcher Radd bridge; note the damaged bicycle path on the right bank. Photo No. 2 : debris trapped around a house in Mossvale Street, Ithaca on the left bank. Photo No. 3: uprooted post and concrete footing in Howthorn Terrace, Ithaca. Photo No. 4 : debris trapped in Woolcock Park, downstream of Mossvale Street culvert.
fb11 - North Pine dam spillway in operation on 22 May 2009 morning. North Pine dam is a 40 m high concrete gravity dam; it is the main water suppy for the North of Brisbane. Photo No. 1: spillway overflow at 07:35. Photo No.2: details of the free-surface aeration on the chute.
fb12 - Lake Kurwongbah dam spillway (also called Sideling Creek dam) on 22 May 2009 morning. The dam is equipped with a Minimum Energy Loss spillway intake. Photo No.1: spillway intake with a very small overflow at 08:20. Photo No. 2: flip buicket operation; note the discharge confined to the low flow section.



Floods in Queensland (Australia) during the summer 2010-2011

Suspended Sediment Properties and Suspended Sediment Flux Estimates in an Urban Environment during a Major Flood Event, in Water Resources Research, AGU, Vol. 48, Paper W11523, 15 pages, 2012 (DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012381) (ISSN 0043-1397). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
Turbulence and Suspended Sediment Measurements in an Urban Environment during the Brisbane River Flood of January 2011, in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 139, No. 2, pp. 244-252 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000666) (ISSN 0733-9429). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)

The 2010-2011 Floods in Queensland (Australia): Observations, First Comments and Personal Experience, in Journal La Houille Blanche, No. 1, pp. 5-11, 2011 (ISSN 0018-6368). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
Queensland Flood Observations, in Water Engineering Australia, Vol. 5, No. 2, April, pp. 22-23 (ISSN 1835-1123). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
The 2010-2011 Floods in Queensland (Australia): Photographic Observations, Comments and Personal Experience, Hydraulic Model Report No. CH82/11, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 127 pages (ISBN 9781742720234)..

Turbulent Velocity and Suspended Sediment Concentration Measurements in an Urban Environment of the Brisbane River Flood Plain at Gardens Point on 12-13 January 2011. Hydraulic Model Report No. CH83/11, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 120 pages (ISBN 9781742720272). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (PDF file low-resolution)

Floods in Queensland (Australia) during Australia's Day in January 2013

FF13_1 South Burnett Valley: Photo No. 1: Barker Creek flooding the Burnett Highway about 30 km North of Nanango (at Reedy Creek)  on 28/1/2013 at 8:20. Photo No. 2 : Barker Creek flooding the road Burnett Highway to Kingaroy road, about 20 km North of Nanango on 28/1/2013 at 8:30. Photo No. 3: Barker Creek flooding over a small road off the Burnett Highway, about 15 km North of Nanango on 28/1/2013 at 8:40.
FF13_2 Flooding in Brisbane QLD on 29/1/2013: Photo No. 1: Eagle Tce and Milton Road, Torwood/Milton/Auchenflower, Brisbane on 29/1/2013 at 10:50 about high tide. Photo No. 2: Kilroy St, Milton/Auchenflower on 29/1/2013 at 10:50 about high tide.

HS13_1 Somerset dam and spillway in operation on 28/1/2013 at 10:30 - Gates fully-opened (Q ~ 450 m3/s).
HS13_2 Lake Kurwongbah and spillway in operation on 29/1/2013 at 10:00. Photo No. 1: Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) inlet operation. Photo No. 2: Flip bucket and tailrace channel.
HS13_3 Hinze dam spillway (Stage 3) in operation on 29/1/2013 at 12:15, Q ~ 170 m3/s. Photo No. 1: View from downstream of the stepped spillway operation. Photo No. 2: View from upstream of the uncontrolled ogee and stepped chute operation.
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Rainstorms
rr1 - Thunderstorm on 1 May 1999 looking west, producing a  heavy rain shaft with probable hail included.  Very cold layer of air  moved into the upper atmosphere triggering storms (Courtesy of Anthony CORNELIUS, http://www.downunderchase.com/photogallery/).
rr2 - Squall line on the Darling Downs near Pittsworth (QLD) looking West on 12 March 2001.  No damage from this storm, but it occurred in a moist environment (hence the very low shelf cloud) (Courtesy of Anthony CORNELIUS, http://www.downunderchase.com/photogallery/).
 
Storms
ss1 -Dust storm over Brisbane on 23 September 2009. This event was the worst dust storm in 70 years. The air dust was some red soil from South Australia and the dust storm affected all NSW and SE-QLD. Some dust concentrations of 15 mg/m3 were measured. The following photographs were taken from the St Lucia campus (building 50, level 4) looking towards the city on 23/9/09 at 11:345 and the next day at 11:15: during and after. The pylons of the Eleanor Schonell bridge are visible in the background as well as well the construction cranes in the City (only visible after the dust storm). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
 

Rivers and streams

River processes
AUSTRALIA
ra1 - Brisbane river, Queensland, Australia
Photo No. 1 : Brisbane river in Brisbane city on 30 March 2002. Photo No. 2 : Brisbane river at Colleges Crossing, Karana Downs on 7 April 2002. Photo No. 3 : Shark warning sign post at Colleges Crossing: small sharks can swim upriver and are regularly seen in this shallow water strech of the Brisbane river. The 2010-2011 Floods in Queensland (Australia): Observations, First Comments and Personal Experience. in Journal La Houille Blanche, No. 1, pp. 5-11 (ISSN 0018-6368). The 2010-2011 Floods in Queensland (Australia): Photographic Observations, Comments and Personal Experience, Hydraulic Model Report No. CH82/11, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 127 pages (ISBN 9781742720234). Turbulent Velocity and Suspended Sediment Concentration Measurements in an Urban Environment of the Brisbane River Flood Plain at Gardens Point on 12-13 January 2011. Hydraulic Model Report No. CH83/11, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 120 pages (ISBN 9781742720272). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (PDF file low-resolution). Suspended Sediment Properties and Suspended Sediment Flux Estimates in an Urban Environment during a Major Flood Event, in Water Resources Research, AGU, Vol. 48, Paper W11523, 15 pages, 2012 (DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012381) (ISSN 0043-1397). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file).
Flooding in Brisbane QLD on 29 January 2013: Photo No. 1: Eagle Tce and Milton Road, Torwood/Milton/Auchenflower, Brisbane on 29/1/2013 at 10:50 about high tide. Photo No. 2: Kilroy St, Milton/Auchenflower on 29/1/2013 at 10:50 about high tide.
ra2- Moggill creek, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Photo No. 1 : Moggill creek near its confluence with the Brisbane river on 20 June 2002 at low tide. Photo No. 2 : Moggill creek looking upstream at low tide on 20 June 2002.
ra3- Eprapah Creek, Redlands QLD (Australia). Photo No. 1 : Eprapah Creek on 11 Dec. 2002 around AMD 2.5 km (estuarine zone) looking upstream. Photo No. 2 :  Eprapah Creek on 11 Dec. 2002 around AMD 3.0 km (near upstream end of estuarine zone) looking upstream. Photo No. 3 : Eprapah Creek, downstream of the marinas, Pt Halloran Conservation area on 20 Jan. 2003 around 2:30pm at low tide. Photo No. 4 : Eprapah Creek, Redlands QLD on 18 Mar. 2003 around 3:00pm (near low tide). Photo No. 5 : Koala in Point Halloran conservation park on 20 Jan. 2003. Photo No. 6 : Sea eagle above Eprapah Creek on 18 Mar. 2003.
Field study at Eprapah Creek on 4 April 2003
READ  Hydraulic, Environmental and Ecological Assessment of a Sub-tropical Estuary in Eastern Australia.
Site No. 1 : Photo No. 1 : Group 1 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 7:30am. Photo No. 2 : Group 1 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 12:00noon.
Site No. 2 : Photo No. 1 : Group 2 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 8:30am. Photo No. 2 : Group 2 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 2:30pm.
Photo No. 50 : Students and EPA boat at Site 2 around the middle of the day (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 51 : water quality observations at Site 2 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 52 : bird watching at Site 2 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 53 : fish dip netting at Site 2 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 54 : dissolved oxygen testing at Site 2 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 55 : measurement preparation on the bank (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2).
Site No. 2B : Photo No. 1 : ADV and YSI probe mounted 50cm beneath the free-surface on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 10:00am.
Site No. 3 : Photo No. 1 : Group 3 on Fri 4 April 2003 around 11:00am. Photo No. 2 : Group 3 on Fri 4 Apr 2003.
Photo No. 60 : Students at Site 1 discussing with Waterwatch people (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 3). Photo No. 61 : surface slick at Site 3 during the flood flow (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 3). Photo No. 62 : Low tide at Site 3, note bank erosion (right bank) (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 3). Photo No. 63 : Site 3 students during the afternoon (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 3).
Site No. 4 : Photo No. 1 : Group 4 on Fri 4 April 2003 at 7:02am. Photo No. 2 : Group 4 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 10:30am. Photo No. 70 : Upstream snag at Site 4 (Platypus pool) (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4). Photo No. 71 : Group work at Site 4 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4). Photo No. 72 : student fishing at Site 4 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4). Photo No. 73 : fishing at Site 4 in front of ECCLA people (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4). Photo No. 74 : students at Site 4 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4).
EPA boat : Photo No. 1 : Qld EPA boat conducting a vertical profile at Site 3 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 11:00am.
Wildflife : Photo No. 1 : Koala next to Site 1 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 5:00pm.

Field trip at Eprapah Creek estuarine zone on 2 September 2004
Site 1 : Photo No. 1.1 :Site 1 students around 7:15 am. Photo No. 1.2 : Site 1 around 12:00 noon at high tide. Photo No. 1.3 : Site 1 activity around 6:30am.
Site 2 : Photo No. 2.1 : Site 2 students around 7:15 am. Photo No. 2.2 : Site 2 activties around 11:00 am.
Site 3 : Photo No. 3.1 : Site 3 student activity around 6:45 am. Photo No. 3.2 : Site around 16:30, with the EPA taking physico-chemical readings mid-stream. Photo No. 3.3 : students around 13:00.
Wildlife : Photo No. 1 : Female koala next to Site 1 on 2 September 2004 around 8:40am.

Field study in Eprapah Creek estuarine zone on Monday 28 August 2006
Site 1 : Photo No. 1.1 : Group 1 at work around 8:30am. Photo No. 1.2 : Discussion with EPA officer around 11:45am. Photo No. 1.3 : Large boat passing upstream in front of Site 1 around 11:50am.
Site 2B : Photo No. 2.1 : Group2 at work around 7:00am. Photo No. 2.2 : looking upstream at Group 2 and river bank around 2:00pm. Photo No. 2.3 : looking from left bank at Group 2 students at low tide (7:00am).
Site 3 : Photo No. 3.1 : Site 3 looking downstream with Group 3 at work around 7:40am; note rainstorm runoff waterfall in background. Photo No. 3.2 : Looking downstream at the EPA boat arriving at Site 3 at 11:00am. Photo No. 3.3 : Group 3 students working on right bank around 8:00am.
Wildlife : Photo No. 1 : Female koala and her baby feeding on an eucalyptus tree at Point Halloran Conservation area around 12:50pm. Photo No. 2 : Koala sleeping
at Point Halloran Conservation area around 12:55pm.

F
ield study in Eprapah Creek estuarine zone on Friday 13 August 2010
Site 1 (Group 1): Photo 1.1: Group 1 at low tide at 06:10; Photo 1.2: Water sampling at end of flood tide at 10:30; Photo 1.3: swamp wallaby next to Site 1 at 15:45;
Site 2B (Group 2):  Photo 2.1: Group 2 at low tide at 07:00; Photo 2.2: Group 2 at 13:40 (early ebb tide); Photo 2.3: Brahminy kite at Site 2 at 14:10;
Site 3 (Group 3): Photo 3.1: Group 3 at 12:00 (high tide); Photo 3.2: Group 3 at 14:00 (early ebb tide).

Field study in Eprapah Creek estuarine zone on Monday 3 September 2012
Site 1 (Group 1): Photo 1.1: Group 1 at 06:10; Photo 1.2: Water sampling at end of flood tide; Photo 1.3: NRM staff monitoring the water quality; Photo 1.4: Group 3 at work during ebb tide;
Site 2B (Group 2):  Photo 2.1: Group 2 at work; Photo 2.2: Group 2 taking water sample;
Site 3 (Group 3): Photo 3.1: Group 3 work; Photo 3.2: Group 3 taking some water samples at end of flood tide.

ra4- Tingalpa Creek, Redlands QLD (Australia). Photo No. 1 : Tingalpa Creek, Redlands QLD on 21 Jan. 2003 around 1:00 pm at high tide around AMD ~ 5 km looking upstream.
ra5- Gascoyne river, Carnarvon WA (Australia). Photo No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 : small flood (Courtesy of Gascoyne Development Commission and Robert PANASIEWICZ).
The Gascoyne river has catchment area of about 67,770 km2 and it extends 630 km inland. Average annual rainfall is less than 250 mm throughout the basin. This is an ephemeral river. The river bed is generally dry, flat and sediment filled. There is typically one to two flow periods per year following seasonal rainfall or cyclone activity, but it may fails to flow at all once every five or six years. More information at {http://www.gdc.wa.gov.au/}.
ra6- Norman Creek, Brisbane QLD (Australia). CIVL4511/4512 student field work on 11 April 2005.  Group 1 : students surveying the Birdwood St MEL culvert inlet, looking upstream from the barrel. Group 2 : student discussion in the Ekibin MEL culvert inlet. Group 3 : survey preparation, downstream of the Ekibin MEL culvert outlet. Group 4 : field work preparation. Group 5 : survey of the MEL waterway beneath the SE freeway. Group 6 : survey of the Ridge St MEL culvert inlet. Group 8 : flood plain survey downstream of Juliette St. Group 9 : studnet survey of Cornwall St culvert. More about Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) Culverts and bridge waterways in Norman Creek.
ra7- Logan River, Queensland (Australia)
January 2008 flood :  Major flooding affected the Logan River carthment on 5-6-7 January 2008. The maximum water levels were 15.1 m at Yarrahappini on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 (03:45), 15.0 m at Maclean Bridge on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 (11:15) and  5.95 m at Waterford on Monday 7 Jan. 2008 (00:30). Recorded water levels at Maclean Bridge are shown here (Courtesy of Bureau of Meteorology and Beaudesert Shire Council)
Photo No. F1 : Logan River immediately upstream of Maclean Bridge on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30 during the flood peak flow, view from the left bank. Photo No. F2:
upstream of Maclean Bridge on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the left bank. Photo No. F3: upstream of Maclean Bridge on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the left bank.  Photo No. F4: downstream of Maclean Bridge on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the left bank. Photo No. F5: downstream of Maclean Bridge on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the left bank. Photo No. F6: Maclean Bridge and downstream flood flow on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the left bank. Photo No. F7: flood flow downstream of Maclean Bridge on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the left bank. Photo No. F8 : flood flow upstream of Maclean Bridge on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the right bank. Photo No. F9 : Maclean Bridge and upstream flood flow on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the right bank. Photo No. F10 : flood flow upstream of Maclean Bridge on Sunday 6 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the right bank.
Photo No. F11:
Logan River upstream of Maclean Bridge on Tuesday 8 Jan. 2008 at 10:00, view from the left bank; compare with Photo No. F1 two days earlier during the maximum flood flow. Photo No. F12  : upstream of Maclean Bridge on Tuesday 8 Jan. 2008 at 10:00, view from the left bank. Photo No. F13 : Maclean Bridge and downstream receeding flood flow on Tuesday 8 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the left bank; compare with Photo No. F4 two days earlier. Photo No. F14 : receeding flood flow downstream of Maclean Bridge on Tuesday 8 Jan. 2008 at 12:30, view from the left bank; compare with Photo No. F5 taken two days earlier during the flood peack water flow. Photo No. F15 : Maclean Bridge and downstream flood flow on Tuesday 8 Jan. 2008 at 10:00, view from the left bank; compare with Photo No. F6 taken two days earlier. Photo No. F16 : receeding flood flow downstream of Maclean Bridge on Tuesday 8 Jan. 2008 at 10:00, view from the left bank; compare with Photo No. F7 taken two days earlier.
Photo No. 21 : Logan river downstream of Cusack Lane Bridge, Jimboomba on Tuesday 8 Jan. 2008 at 10:20, view from the left bank. Photo No. F22 :
Logan river downstream of Cusack Lane Bridge, Jimboomba on Tuesday 8 Jan. 2008 at 10:20, view from the right bank. Photo No. F23 : Cusack Lane Bridge, Jimboomba on Tuesday 8 Jan. 2008 at 10:20, view from the left bank.
Photo No. 31 : Logan River at J.S. Cochrane Bridge, Cedar Grove on Tuesday 8 January 2008 at 10:45, view from the right bank; the bridge was partially submerged during the flood. Photo No. 32 :
Logan River upstream of J.S. Cochrane Bridge, Cedar Grove on Tuesday 8 January 2008 at 10:45, view from the left bank. Photo No. 33 : Logan River downstream of J.S. Cochrane Bridge, Cedar Grove on Tuesday 8 January 2008 at 10:45, view from the bridge.
Flood on 21 May 2009: Photo No.1: Logan River downstream of Maclean bridge, view from the left bank at 08:20. Photo No. 2: Sign of the 1887 and 1947 flood levels with the Maclean bridge in the background. Photo No. 3: Logan River downstream of Larry Storey Bridge, Waterford West at 09:50.
ra8- Teviot Brook, Queensland (Australia)
During the 5-6-7 January 2008 flood, significant flooding occured in Teviot Brook, a tributary of the Logan River.
Recorded water levels at the Overflow are shown here (Courtesy of Bureau of Meteorology and Beaudesert Shire Council).
Photo No. FT1 : Upper catchment of Teviot Brook at the Old Beaudesert Road, on Tuesday 8 January 2008 at 11:35, upstream of the timber bridge. Photo No. FT2 :
Upper catchment of Teviot Brook at the Old Beaudesert Road, on Tuesday 8 January 2008 at 11:35, upstream of the timber bridge. Photo No. FT3 : Upper catchment of Teviot Brook at Nixon Road, on Tuesday 8 January 2008 at 12:00noon, view from the left bank. Photo No. FT4 : Upper catchment of Teviot Brook at Smith Road, on Tuesday 8 January 2008 at 12:05, view from the right bank. Photo No. FT5 : Teviot Brook at Kilmoylar Road, Cedar Grove on Tuesday 8 January 2008 at 10:30, view from the right bank; the road bridge was submerged by several metres of water during the peak flow period.
ra9- Oxley Creek, Queensland (Australia). Flood on 21 May 2009: Photo No. 1: downstream part of the culvert beneath Sherwood Road, Rocklea at 07:20. Photo No. 2: looking downstream of the Sherwood Road culvert at 07:20; Photo No. 3: Oxley Creek at Archerfield, Beaty Road on at 07:40, looking downstream.
ra10-
South Burnett Valley: Photo No. 1: Barker Creek flooding the Burnett Highway about 30 km North of Nanango (at Reedy Creek)  on 28/1/2013 at 8:20. Photo No. 2 : Barker Creek flooding the road Burnett Highway to Kingaroy road, about 20 km North of Nanango on 28/1/2013 at 8:30. Photo No. 3: Barker Creek flooding over a small road off the Burnett Highway, about 15 km North of Nanango on 28/1/2013 at 8:40.

CANADA
ca1-St Laurent river, Québec, Canada. Photo No. 1 : Saint-Laurent river, looking downstream from Montréal Vieux-Port with Pont Jacques Cartier in background. Photo No. 2 : Saint-Laurent river, looking upstream towards Pont Victoria on 12 July 2002. Photo No. 3 : Rapide du Sault Normand, upstream of La Concorde bridge, Montréal, next to left bank on 12 July 2002. Photo No. 4 : upstream pier profile of Pont de la Concorde, Montréal; note the sharp upstream edge to break ice during spring times. Photo No. 5 : Rapids of Lachine, upstream of Montréal, looking from right bank on 15 May 2004. Photo No. 6 : Rapids de Lachine, looking upstream on 15 May 2004. Photo No. 7 : Heron at Lachine rapids on 15 May 2004; the Lachine rapids are a refuge area for migratory birds.
The Lachine canal was built in 1821-1825 to allow commercial shipping around the Lachine rapids. He was disused in 1959 after the completion of the Voie Maritime du St Laurent (St Laurent Seaway).
ca2- La Rivière Rouge, Québec, Canada. Photo No. 1 : Rapides aux Iroquois, Les Laurentides, view from right bank on 13 July 2002. Photo No. 2 : La Rivière Rouge, upstream les Rapides aux Iroquois on 13 July 2002.
ca3- La Gatineau river, Québec, Canada. Photo No. 1 : Le Grand Remous (and Le Pont Couvert Savoyard on left) on 13 July 2002. Photo No. 2 : Le Grand Remous viewed from right bank on 13 July 2002. Photo No. 3 : Rapids at Grand-Remous township on 13 July 2002.
FRANCE
rf1- Floods of the Seine river (France) in March-April 2001. Photo No. 1 : the Seine river, looking downstream  from Quai des Orfevres, Ile de la Cite, with the Pont-Neuf in background on 1 Apr. 2001 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). Photo No. 2 : Pont Alexandre III,  viewed from left bank withe the left bank expressway (voie express rive gauche) under water on 1 Apr. 2001 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). Photo No. 3 : le Zouave du Pont de l'Alma on 1 April 2001 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). More information in French : the Seine river floods (1), the four reservoirs upstream of Paris (2), the 1910 flood of Paris (3).
The Zouave is a statue from Georges Diébolt (1816-1861), to celebrate the courage of the Zouaves at the battle of Alma during the Crimean War (1854-1855). The statue was used to measure the floods of the Seine river. (Info: (1), (2), (3) , (4) )
rf2- Ardèche river, France. Photo No. 1 : Gorges de l'Ardèche, looking downstream in 1977. Photo No. 2 : Pont d'Arc, Vallée de l'Ardèche in 1977 (Read more (1)).
rf3- Buëch river, France. Photo No. 1: Looking upstream on 11 Feb. 2004, about 15 km downstream of Luce La Croix Haute. Photo No. 2 : idem. Photo No. 3 : Looking upstream at Aspremont on 11 Feb. 2004.
rf4- Arc river, Vallée de la Maurienne, France. Photo No. 1: Looking at Rocher de Pierre Allamant, Pontamafrey-Notre-Dame du Châtel, on 11/2/04.
rf5-
Vésubie river, France. The Vésubie river is a tributory of the Var river flowing into the Mediterranean Sea at Nice. Photo No. 1 : Gorge de la Vallée de la Vésubie on 25/02/2004, looking upstream. Photo No. 2 : Gorge de la Vallée de la Vésubie on 25/02/2004, looking upstream.
rf6- S
élune river, France. Tidal bore affected river in Normandy. Photo No. 1 : Sélune river estuary, viewed from left bank at Roche-Torin at sunrise on 7/4/04 beofre tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore seen from Roche-Torin far away in front of Ile de Tombelaine with seagulls (white dots) in front of the bore. Photo No. 3 : advancing tidal bore in front of Pointe du Grouin du Sud.  Photo No. 4 : advancing bore front viewed from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 5 : advancing bore front viewed from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 6 : advancing bore front just in front of Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 7 : tidal bore advancing upstream, seen from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 8 : approaching tidal bore, one hour later, upstream of Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 9 : approaching tidal bore, one hour later, upstream of Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 10 : Sélune river tidal bore approaching Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 11 : Sélune river tidal bore passing below Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04; note the bridge pier "knife" shape; note also that the bore became an undular bore just downstream of the bridge, possibly because of a local scour hole. Photo No. 12 : strong current below Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) on 7/4/04 after the tidal bore passage, view from left bank looking upstream.
fr7- Garonne river, France. Garonne river at Langoiran: Photo No. 1 : Looking downstream at high tide on 19 July 2008 evening (22:10); Photo No. 2 : Looking upstream at low tide on 19 July 2008 at 18:10. Garonne river at Podensac : Photo No. 1 : large-scale vortical structures at the free-surface on the channel centreline on 19 July 2008 at end of ebb tide flow.
GERMANY
rg1- Surfing a hydraulic jump roller in the English Garden, Munich (Germany) - Photo No. 1 : a surfer departing from the left bank (Courtesy of Dale YOUNG). Photo No. 2 : looking downstream at a surfer (Courtesy of Dale YOUNG).
JAPAN
rj1- Hayagawa river, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan in November 1998 - Looking upstream at the bed load material - The river is a tributary of the Fujigawa river, flowing at the foot of Mount Fuji.The Hayagawa is located on the Western slopes of the Fujigawa catchment. The photograph was taken upstream of the fully-silted reservoir of Nishiyawa dam (Japan, 1957) : H = 39 m, L = 112 m, Res. Cap. = 2.38 Mm3, spillway cap. : 575 m3/s. The reservoir became fully-silted by gravel bed-load in less than 20 years. The reservoir was dredged in the 1990s down to 2-m to resume hydropower operation.
        More on Extreme Reservoir Siltation ...
rj2- Fuji-gawa river, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. Also called river Fuji or Fuji-kawa, the Fuji-gawa is characterised by a steep slope up to its river mouth associated with heavy sediment load. Photo No. 1 : low flow and bed load deposits, on 2 Nov. 2001. Photo No. 2 : meandering section, looking upstream on 2 Nov. 2001. Photo No. 3 : Fuji-gawa near the river mouth on 2 Nov. 2001. Note the concrete block protecting the bridge piers and the "bullet train" (Shikansen) on the bridge.
rj3- Oyana-gawa river, Japan. The Oyana-gawa is a tributory of Fuji gawa, on the right slope, upstream of both the Hayagawa confluence and Joyou-gawa confluence. Photo No. 1 : gravel bar in the river bed, looking upstream, on 2 Nov. 2001. Photo No. 2 : Sabo works on the Oyana river on 2 Nov. 2001.
rj4- Joyou-gawa cachment, Japan. Photo No. 1 : bed load material on Tochi-shiro river with a Sabo check dam in background on 2 Nov. 2001. The size of the largest material exceeded 4 m with a weight over 30 tons.
rj5- Jogangi River catchment, Japan. Located South of Toyama City, the river catchment is very steep and affected by massive sediment motion processes. Photo No. 1 : Sabo works on the Jogangi River immediately downstream of a series of train and road bridges on 12 Nov. 2008; note the train passing the bridge. Photo No. 2 : Sabo works on a tributary of
Jogangi River on 12 Nov. 2008; the photograph was taken upstream of Photo No. 1. Photo No. 3 : massive sediment debris downstream of Syomyodaki Waterfall in the Jogangi River catchment on 12 Nov. 2008; the two large concrete blocks were dislodged from upstream sabo works.
TAIWAN
rt01- Hsinwulu river East coast of Taiwan in December 1998
rt02- Lu-Ye river, Beinan river system, Taitung county, East coast of Taiwan. The Lu-Ye river flows East down a steep catchment until it joins another river to become the Beinan river which reached the Pacific Ocean at Taitung.  Photo No. 1 : Looking upstream in Dec. 1998, note the bridge pier protection with rip-rap. Photo No.2 : Lu-Ye river, looking downstream in Dec. 1998, with a transmission tower. Photo No. 11 : Lu-Ye river on 22 Nov. 2006, looking upstream. Photo No. 12 : Lu-Ye river on 22 Nov. 2006, looking downstream. Photo No. 13 : Lu-Ye river on 22 Nov. 2006, looking from the right bank.
rt03- Beinan river, Taitung,
East coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : looking upstream at the river bed about 200 m upstream of the Pacific Ocean on 23 Nov. 2006.
rt04-  Tungkang river (Dongkan river), Pingtung county, West coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : Tungkang river at Wulung on 18 Nov. 2006; tidal section of the river at high tide. Photo No.2 : Fishing raft made of bamboos on
Tungkang river at Wulung on 18 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 3 : Tungkang river at Wulung on 18 Nov. 2006 at low tide; see the same estuarine section at high tide (Photo No. 1).
rt05- Fangshan river, Pingtung county, West coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : Fangshan river mouth, 10 km South of Tungkang on 23 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 2 : Fangshan river mouth on 23 Nov. 2006.
rt06- Ma-Anh river, Hualien county, East coast of Taiwan. The Ma-Anh river carries a lot of sediment load including large bed load material. The main railway road from Taitung to Hualien travels underground (buried) beneath the river bed because of the very high risks of bridge failure. Photo No. 1 : Ma-Anh river on 22 Nov. 2006, about 300 m upstream of the railroad tunnel beneath the river; looking downstream from the left bank. Photo No. 2 : view from the left bank on 22 Nov. 2006 at the main road bridge upstream of the railroad bridge.
rt07- Jhihben river, Taitung county, East coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : Jhihben river through Jhihben township, looking upstream on 21 Nov. 2006; the
Jhihben township is well-known for its natural hot springs and spas. Photo No. 2 : Jhihben river through Jhihben township, looking from the right bank on 21 Nov. 2006 at the river bed load material. Photo No. 3 : looking upstream at the main road bridge of the Jhihben township, with the touristic hotels in the background on 22 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 4 : bed load material below the main road bridge of the Jhihben township, looking from the right bank on 22 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 5 : Jhihben River upstream of Jhihben township, looking downstream on 8 Dec. 2008
Photo No. 11 : looking downstream at the Jhihben river bridge for Road [9] on 22 Nov. 2006; ruins of the old bridge peirs are visible underneath the bridge; the bridge is about 2-3 km downstream of the Jhihben township. Photo No. 12 : looking upstream of the Jhihben river bed from the bridge for Road [9] on 22 Nov. 2006.
rt08- Baiyang waterfall, Taroko Gorge,
Hualien county, East coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : Baiyang waterfall in Taroko Gorge on 10 Nov. 2008. Photo No. 2 : sediment bed load looking upstream on 10 Nov. 2008.
rt09- Liwu River
, Taroko Gorge, Hualien county, East coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : Liwu River, view from the left bank on 9 Nov. 2008 near the downstream end of Taroko Gorge. Photo No. 2 : Sipan Dam on Liwu River, view from the right bank on 9 Nov. 2008; built in 1940 during the Japan occupation, the dam was refubished in 1968 with the addition of flood gates. Photo No. 3 : Liwu River, view from the right bank looking downstream on 9 Nov. 2008; photograph taken upstream of Sipan dam. Photo No. 4 : Liwu River at Tiansang, Taroko Gorge on 10 Nov. 2008, looking upstream.
rt10-
Ai-lia-ci River, Pingtung County, Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : Ai-lia-ci River looking upstream at Shueimen township (Sandimen) on 16 Dec. 2008; view from the right bank next to the intersection of roads [185], [187] & [24]; flow from background to foreground. Photo No. 2 : Ai-lia-ci River bed looking uptream at Shueimen township (Sandimen) on 22 Dec. 2008. Photo No. 3 : Ai-lia-ci River bed looking downstream at Shueimen township (Sandimen) on 22 Dec. 2008; note the massive sedimen load deposits.
KOREA
rk1- Han river, Korea. Photo No. 1 : Han river in Seoul on 14 Sept. 2005, view from the right bank. Photo No. 2 : Han river and some river crossings on 14 Sept. 2005.

Sediment transport in streams
s1- Sand dunes : active dune migration,Takatoyo beach (Enshu coast) on 30 January 1999; sand dunes in an experimental river, ARRC, Gifu on 30 March 1999; wind-blown sand dunes, Nakatajima 28 march 1999.
s2- Antidune migration, Takatoyo beach on 14 March 1999 : Looking upstream (flow from background to bottom foreground). Looking downstream (flow from bottom to top background).
s3- Antidunes, Takatoyo beach on 11 April 1999.
s4- Formation of step-pools, Terasawa beach, Japan on 14 Oct. 2001. Anti-dunes associated with strong scour in a rip channel leading to step pool bed forms.
s5- Bed load material :  Photo No. 1 : Korrumbyn Creek downstream of Korrumbyn Creek dam on 18 Aug. 2002. Read the history of the dam: download PDF file at UQeSpace. Photo No. 2 : Bed load material in the delta (upstream end) of the fully-silted Korrumbyn Creek reservoir on 17 Aug. 2002.

        More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...
s6- Dunes and ripples :
Photo No. 1 : dune bed forms with ripples at Plage du Minou on 24 March 2004 at low tide. Photo No. 2 : dune bed forms with ripples at Plage du Minou on 24 March 2004 at low tide. Photo No. 3 : dune bed forms with ripples at Plage du Minou on 24 March 2004 at low tide; details of one bed form with key ring for scale.
s11- Bed load material in Taiwan
. Photo No. 1 : bed load material in the Jhihben river through Jhihben township, Taitung county, Taiwan on 21 Nov. 2006; view from the right bank. Photo No. 2 : looking upstream of the Jhihben river bed load deposit from the bridge for Road [9] on 22 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 3 : Ai-lia-ci River looking upstream at Shueimen township (Sandimen) on 16 Dec. 2008; view from the right bank next to the intersection of roads [185], [187] & [24]; flow from background to foreground. Photo No. 4 : Ai-lia-ci River bed looking uptream at Shueimen township (Sandimen) on 22 Dec. 2008. Photo No. 5 : Ai-lia-ci River bed looking downstream at Shueimen township (Sandimen) on 22 Dec. 2008; note the massive sedimen load deposits.
s12 Massive sediment motion processes in the Jogangi River catchment. Photo No. 1 : Sabo works on the Jogangi River immediately downstream of a series of train and road bridges on 12 Nov. 2008; note the train passing the bridge. Photo No. 2 : Sabo works on a tributary of Jogangi River on 12 Nov. 2008; the photograph was taken upstream of Photo No. 1. Photo No. 3 : massive sediment debris downstream of Syomyodaki Waterfall in the Jogangi River catchment on 12 Nov. 2008; the two large concrete blocks were dislodged from upstream sabo works.

Waterfalls
w1- Hopetown Falls, Otway Range VIC, Australia. Oct. 1998 (Courtesy of Dr R. MANASSEH).
w2- Shiraito-no-taki, Urui river, Japan (5 June 1998) : upstream stream, large fall, waterfalls.
w3- Craddle Mountain, Tasmania (Australia) - Cascasding waters in July 2002 (Courtesy of Jerry LIM and York-wee TAN).
w4- Les Chutes de Plaisances Outaouais (Ottawa), Québec (Canada). On the left slopes of the Ottawa river (ie Outaouais river), the chutes are located on the Petite-Nation river whcih is fed by large groundwater reserves. The Chutes have a total drop of 23 m. Photo No. 1 : upper section on 14 July 2002. Photo No. 2 : view from downstream on 14 July 2002.
    More about Cascades, water staircases and fountains ...

Flood plains and lakes
Australia
f11- Lake George (Australia) on 26 Nov. 1999 - Shallow freshwater lake near Canberra. Although the catchment area is 984 km2, the lake has no external drainage. It maintains a delicate balance between rainfall, evaporation and streamflow, displaying wide fluctuations from completly dry (empty) to surface area up to 250 km2.
Cambodia
f12- Lake of Tônlé-Sab, Cambodia in Dec. 2001 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). The lake is a natural floodplain  reservoir on the Sab rive, a tributary of the Mekong. During the June-to-November monsoonal regime, the swollen Mekong creates a backwater effect which reverses the flow direction in the lake.
f13- Western Barai, Angkor, Cambodia in Dec. 2001 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). It is a 8km long, 2.1 km wide rectangular artifical lake West of Angkor buitl for  irrigation and flood control. The embankment dam  overflow leads to irrigation channels.
Canada
f21- Lake Jacques, in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada (Rocky Mountain) in July 2002 (Courtesy of John REMI).
f22- Lac des Ours, Parc de Frontenac, Québec, Canada. Photo No. 1 : Lac des Ours on 12 June 2004 around sunrise. Photo No. 2 : Lac des Ours on 12 June 2004 around sunset.

Aral Sea
f31- The Aral Sea (Central Asia). The Aral Sea is located between Uzbekistand and Kazakhstan, Central Asia. This inland sea suffered a major shrinkage caused by artificial diversion of  riverine waters during the 2nd half of 20th century and it is regarded as a world environmental disaster. Since 1987 there are two Aral Seas ; the small Aral Sea in the North and the large Aral Sea in the South. References : (1), (2), (3), (4).
Photo No. 1 : Muynak (Uzbekistan), the old Aral Sea port on the Southern shore in Sept 1998  where the shoreline has receded about 50 km North (Courtesy of Errol CRAIG). Photo No. 2 : Muynak (Uzbekistan) in Sept 1998 (Courtesy of Errol CRAIG) (4).

Artifical river system, fishway and fish pass
a1- Research Habitat Restoration Center ARRC, Gifu, Japan (Photograph on the 30 March 1999) - The ARRC laboratory includes 3 parallel 800-m long channels (slope from upstream to downstream : 1/300, 1/800, 1/300). Artifical flooding (i.e. discharge) is controlled by a series of flap gates at the upstream end. Real fishs swim up and down the river systems. Two examples of river restoration test sections are shown (type 1), (type 2). An example of bank erosion test section.
a2- Fishways in Japan : Photo No. 1 : "Ice Harbour" type fishway at headworks (Baffle-type fishway) at the ARRC (Gifu, Japan) in March 1999 - Photo No. 2 : Hydraulic model of a vertical slot fishway looking upstream (Toyohashi University of Technology, project supervised by Professor S. Nakamura) - Photo No. 3 : Hydraulic model of a weir type fishway, looking upstream with resting pool in foreground and fish lock/elevator in bacground (Toyohashi University of Technology, project supervised by Professor S. Nakamura) - Photo No. 4 : Step-pool fishway on Kamo-gawa (Hyoto, Japan) on 27 Apr. 1999.
a3- Fishways in Australia : Photo No. 1 : Vertical slot fishway at Dalby weir on 8 Nov. 1997 (Condamine river, QLD). At the time of visit the weir was overflowing but the fishway was not operating - Photo No. 2 : step-pool fishway at Glenarbon weir (Dumaresq river, QLD) in Feb. 1998.
 

Terasawa beach, Enshu coast Coastlines

Coastlines of Japan
c1- Enshu coast, Aichi prefecture (Japan)
The Enshu coast, or Enshu-nada, is located on the PacificOcean in Central Honshu. The coastline extends from Omae Cape (Omae-zaki) to Irago Cape (Irago-zaki). The Western section of the Enshu coast, located between the Tenryu river (Tenryu-gawa) and Irago Cape, is called Omote beach or Omote-hama (Omotehama network website). Aerial pictures of the Omote beach are located in the Photo Gallery of the Omotehama network website.
    Wave runup on Takatoyo beach, Toyohashi on 17 January 1999 and runup at sunset on 3 Oct. 2001. Takatoyo beach, Pacific coast near Toyohashi on 30 January 1999. Wave runup and wave breaking, on 30 January 1999, Takatoyo beach. The crane in background is installing submerged concrete breakwaters. SE winds and surfing waves on 14 March 1999 at Takatoyo beach. Note the surfers (i.e. "black spots"). Strong winds on 11 April 1999, no surfers at Takatoyo beach!
   Photo No. 21: Takatoyo beach on 7 Nov. 2008 view from the cliff; the photo may be compared with a photo taken from the same spot on 14 March 1999 (CHANSON and AOKI 2004). Photo No. 22 : surfers on Takatayo beach on 7 Nov. 2008 about 16:00. Photo No. 23 : surfers
on Takatayo beach on 7 Nov. 2008 about 16:00; the floating beacon in background marks the edges of the submerged concrete breakwaters installed in 1999.
   Photo No. 31 : concrete breakwater systems at Nishiakazawa fishing harbour on 22 Nov. 2008 at high tide.  Photo No. 32: details of the concrete breakwater blocks 
at Nishiakazawa fishing harbour on 22 Nov. 2008 at high tide.  Photo No. 33: concrete breakwater blocks  at Nishiakazawa fishing harbour  and a surfer "hot spa" on 22 Nov. 2008.
c2- Terasawa beach, Omotehama, Enshu coast. Rip current and rip feeder system : Photo No. 1 : rip feeder and outlet in background on 12 Oct. 2001- Photo No. 2 : the same feeder system on 12 Oct. 2001 - Photo No. 3 : same system on 13 Oct. 2001 - Photo No. 4 : feeder system at high tide on 13 Sept. 2001. Photo No. 5 : rip channel and current on 14 Oct. 2001 at high tide. Photo No. 6 : rip channel at high tide on 14 Oct. 2001.
Terasawa beach : Photo No. 7 : grain sorting (dark stripes) on 25 Oct. 2001. Photo No. 8 : surfers taking off the beach on 25 Oct. 2001 at sunrise. Photo No. 9 : sunset on Enshu-nada on 23 Nov. 2001. Photo No. 10 : breaking waves with strong wave reflection on 23 Nov. 2001 at high tide.
c3- Irago peninsula, Aichi prefecture (Japan)
    Beach and rock formations East of "Pacific Long Beach" on 6 Oct. 2001. "Pacific Long Beach" with Akabane harbour entrance and Irago Cape in background (End of Enshu coast on the Pacific ocean) on 13 February 1999. Akabane fishing harbour, entrance on the left and storm surge barrier on the right on 13 February 1999. The storm surge barrier is also used to prevent salt intrusion in the water table.
   Beach and rock formations East of "Pacific Long Beach" on 29 Nov. 2008: Photo No. 1  and Photo No. 2. "Pacific Long Beach" with Akabane harbour entranc in background on 29 Nov. 2008. Akabane fishing harbour, entrance on the left, on 29 Nov. 2008.
c4- Tsunami warning signs in Japan. Photo No. 1 : Tsunami warning sign post off Takatoyo beach, Enshunanda (Aichi Prefecture)  on 27 March 1999; note the surfers and fishermen drawings. Photo No. 2 : the same old warning sign on 7 November 2008. Photo No. 3 : new tsunami warning sign on Takatoyo beach on 7 November 2008. Photo No. 4 : another type of new tsunami warning sign in Aichi Prefecture on 22 November 2008 along the Enshu coastline. Photo No. 5: another type of new tsunami warning sign at  Mutsure fishing harbour (Aichi Prefecture) on 23 Nov. 2008. Photo No. 6: another new tsunami warning sign at Magome River mouth (Shizuoka Prefecture) on 27 Nov. 2008. Photo No. 7: another new tsunami warning sign at the Tenryu River mouth (Shizuoka Prefecture) on 27 Nov. 2008. [Related : Calculating the threat of tsunami]
c5- Toyohashi harbour on 6 Oct. 2001.
c6- Seto Inland Sea : Miya-jima (Japan)
Miya-jima is an important Shinto shrine. The Itsukushima shrine was first built in AD 592 and rebuilt in 1168 in the same scale as today. The 16-m tall Torii gate, built in 1875, marked the entrance of the shrine and indicate that all the island forms the shrine.
    Photo No. 1 : Miya island northern shore on 19 Nov. 2001. Photo No. 2 : 16-m tall Torii gate on 19 Nov. 2001 at high tide.

Coastlines of Australia
c6a- Gold Coast
Main Beach on 7 Aug. 1999. Looking North and South.
Tweeds Head on 28 Jul. 2000. Rip current near point Danger. Dolphins surfing the waves at the foot of Pt Danger cliff. Tweed Heads, Gold Coast, Australia. Photo No. 1 :  from Point Danger, Gold Coast, on 13 April 2001 after two days of big swell. Photo No. 2 : bar at entrance, surfer and small dinghy in swell (13 Apr. 2001). Photo No. 3 : plunging breaker at Snappers' Rock on 2 Aug. 2003. Photo No. 4 : Tweed River head, looking towar the sea on 3 Aug. 2003.
Rainbow Beach, Gold Coast, Australia. Photo No. 1 : Plunging breaker with surfers on 13 Apr. 2001. Photo No. 2 : Surfer and life saving rowing boat on 13 Apr. 2001.
c6b- Sunshine Coast
Coolum beach : Photo No. 1: Coolum beach on 16 Nov. 2002. Photo No. 2 : Coolum beach on 17 Nov. 2002. Photo No. 3: Coolum beach on 18 Nov. 2002 around 7:00 am
. Point Artwright : Photo No. 1 : on 18 Nov. 2002 around 7:00 am. Mooloolaba : Photo No. 1 : Mooloolaba beach on 10 Aug. 2002 morning, during ebb, shortly after high tide. Photo No. 2: Mooloolaba beach on 10 Aug. 2002 morning, looking SE.
c7- Moreton island (Australia) : Western beach in 1992.
c8- Coffs Harbour beach (Australia) on 23 Nov. 1999.
c9- Corrimal beach, Wollongong (Australia) on 24&25 Nov. 1999. Panoramic view. Waves at sunrise.
c10- Hastings Point, NSW (Australia). Photo No. 1 : Cudgera Creek river on 16 June 2003 at early ebb tide, looking downstream, view from main bridge. Photo No. 2 : Cudgera Creek river mouth on 15 June 2003 at low tide.

Great Barrier Reef
gbr1- Heron Island, QLD. Photo No. 1 : at low tide on 28 Dec. 2001. Photo No. 2 : the Gantry on 28 Dec. 2001. Photo No. 3 : South-West beach at high tide on 27 Dec. 2001. Photo No. 4 : underwater photograph at Shark Bay on 26 Dec. 2001. Photo No. 5 : reef at low tide on 28 Dec. 2001. Photo No. 6 : Northern reef 2 hours before low tide on 25 Dec. 2001. Photo No. 7 : Black Noddy Terns (mother and child) on 25 Dec. 2001. Photo No. 8 : Heron Island Eastern Reef Egrets on 26 Dec. 2001. Photo No. 9 : Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Muttonbird) on 26 Dec. 2001 evening. Photo No. 10 : Green turtle leaving Heron Island on 25 Dec. 2001 around 6:00 am after laying her eggs. Photo No. 11 : turtle swimming in the reef.
    Read "Coastal Observations: Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia"

Aber Benoit (France)Coastlines of France
c10- Cote de Granite Rose : Ploumanach (Bretagne, France) in Dec. 1994, lighthouse, granite coast.
c11- Mont Saint Michel (Bretagne, France)
 
Photo No. 1 : in Dec. 1994. Photo No. 2 : Mont St Michel at low tide on 4/2/2004. Photo No. 3 : Ile de la Tombelaine, North of Mt St Michel at low tide on 4/2/2004. Photo No. 4 : during the ebb tide on 7 March 2004.
 Photo No. 11 : view at high tide on 24 June 2008 (neap tide). Photo No. 12 : transient front in the Couesnon river estuary on 24 June 2008 at high tide, view from the Mont Saint Michel monastery. Photo No. 13 : Transient fronts and plunge point line(s) in the Baie du Mont Saint Michel in 24 June 2008 at high tide under neap tide conditions; view from Mont Saint Michel with the Ile de Tombelaine on the top right. Photo No. 14 : detail of a transient front plunge line on 24 June 2008 at high tide.
 Moulin de Moidrey, Baie du Mont Saint Michel (France). Built in 1806 as a tower mill, and restored in 2003, the wind mill was equipped in 1840 with 
wooden-slatted sails (wings/blades) based upon the French engineer BERTON's system. The Berton system alloes the wooden-slatted sails to be deployed or folded from inside the mill. Photo No. 21: view on 24 June 2008 during operation. Photo No. 22 : details of the deploed wooden-slatted sails, restored with Berton system.
c12- Le Val-André (Bretagne, France)
    Photo No. 1 the beach in 1998 (Courtesy of Mrs SENLY), photograph taken about 1.5 hours before high tide; Photo No. 2 : Port de Piegu at half-tide. Photo No. 3 : the beach at low tide on 3 Sept. 2000. Photo No. 4 : beach at high tide with a strong wind on 30 Sept. 2000 (Courtesy of Mrs CHANSON). Photo No. 5 : wave reflection on 30 Sept. 2000 (Courtesy of Mrs CHANSON). The tidal range in this part of the Baie de Saint-Brieuc may reach over 14 metres. Photo No. 6 : beach on 28 Feb. 2004 under the snow, at mid-flood tide around 8:2am; the beach was totally covered by snow and the event was on the national evening news (TF1, 2:00). Photo No. 7 : Port de Piegu under snow on 28 Feb. 2004. See also the Atlantic Wall fortification at Le Val-André in the Civil Engineering Structures section.
c13- Le Verdelet, Val-André (Bretagne, France)
    The Verdelet may be reached on foot at very-low tides. There is a legend that a monastery was once built on the rock. Photo No. 1 : general view. Photo No. 2 : at low tide on 3 Sept. 2000. Gravure by Y.H. CHOU in Sept. 2000.
c14- Le Port de Dahouet (Bretagne, France)
    Photo No. 1 : at high tide on 3 Sept. 2000. Photo No. 2 : at low tide on 8 Sept. 2000. Photo No. 3 : the Moulin à marées (tidal mill) with the Etang de la Flora in foregound and the harbour of Dahouet in background in Sept. 2000.
c15- Plage des Vallées, Côtes d'Armor
(Bretagne, France). Photo No. 1 : on 28 Feb. 2004 around 8:00 am under the snow. Photo No. 2 : wave breaking on 28 Feb. 2004 at mid flood tide, with the glare from the sunset.
c16- Erquy (Bretagne, France) - Le Port d'Erquy and an "old sail" in Sept. 2000. Le Cap d'Erquy in Sept. 2000.
c17- Aber-Ildut (Finistère, France) - Photo No. 1 : entrance of the Aber on 1 Mar. 2004 at mid ebb tide. Photo No. 2 : entrance channel on 1 Mar. 2003, with the Phare du Four ("Four" Lighthouse) in background.
c18- Aber Benoît (Pays du Léon,
Finistère, France).  An aber is an estuary with the shape of a fjord. The Aber Benoît (or Benniget) is about 8 km long. Photo No. 1 : Port de Stellac'h, St Pabu, on 10 March 2004 at low tide, looking upstream. Photo No. 2 : View from the left bank below Moulin Quinou on 10 March 2004 at low tide.  Photo No. 3 : Looking downstream from Pont de Tréglonou at low tide on 10 March 2004. Photo No. 4 : looking downstream near the upstream of the Aber on 10 March 2004 at low tide. See also the Atlantic Wall fortifications around Aber Benoit and Aber Wrac'h in the Civil Engineering Structures section.
c19- Aber Wrac'h (Pays du Léon, Finistère, France). Photo No. 1: Looking downstream at low tide on 10 March 2004 from Traon. Photo No. 2 : Looking upstream at low tide on 10 March 2004 from Traon. Photo No. 3 : Looking upstream at low tide on 10 March 2004 near Kerouatz; note the Parcs à huitres (oyster farm).  See also the Atlantic Wall fortifications around Aber Benoit and Aber Wrac'h in the Civil Engineering Structures section
c20- Pointe Saint Mathieu (Pays du Léon, Finistère, France). Photo No. 1 : light tower, navigation control tower and old monatery on 16 March 2004; the monastery was founded during the 6th century AD by Saint Tanguy and the church building was built between the the 11th and 15th centuries. Photo No. 2 : light tower (56 m high) in the middle of the monastery church on 16 March 2004. Photo No. 3 : Pointe St Mathieu on 16/03/2004 at high tide looking South. Photo No. 4 : Tourelle Les Vieux Moines about 1 km West-South-West of Pointe St Mathieu on 16 March 2004 at high tide. See also the Atlantic Wall fortification next to Pointe Saint Mathieu (Les Rospects, Kéringar) in the Civil Engineering Structures section.
c21- Pointe du Petit Minou, Pointe du Grand Minou and Plage du Minou (Pays du Léon, Finistère, France). Photo No. 1 : light tower and fort viewed from Pointe du Grand Minou (Hameau de Toulbroc'h) at 13:15 (mid flood tide) on 18 March 2004. Photo No. 2 : Pointe du Grand Minou and  Plage du Minou at 13:00 (mid flood tide) on 18 March 2004; note surfers on foreground right. Photo No. 3 : Plage du Minou at low tide on 24 march 2004. Photo No. 4 : dune bed forms with ripples at Plage du Minou on 24 March 2004 at low tide. Photo No. 5 : dune bed forms with ripples at Plage du Minou on 24 March 2004 at low tide. Photo No. 6 : dune bed forms with ripples at Plage du Minou on 24 March 2004 at low tide; details of one bed form with key ring for scale. See also the Atlantic Wall fortification at Pointe du Petit Minou in the Civil Engineering Structures section. Read "Pointe du Petit Minou and Phare, Goulet de la Rade de Brest, Bretagne, France" in Journal of Coastal Research 2006 (PDF file at EprintsUQ).
c22- Sillon de Talbert, Pleubian, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). The Sillon du Talbert is a natural thin 3 km long tongue made of 'galets' (pebbles about 5 to 20 cm) and sand. It is located at the tip of a peninsula between the estuaries of the river Jaudy (Le Jaudy) et Trieux (Le Trieux) next to Ile de Bréhat. At the end of the Sillon, there is an archipel of islands and rocks called "Archipel d'Ollone" (Ollone archipel), also called the Talbert islands (Iles de Talbert) for local people. The Sillon du Talbert (or Sillon de Talbert) is an important reserve of flora and fauna. The Sillon was damaged by locals using stones for construction until 1928, the German using stones for the Ile Blanche (et Ile à Bois ?) bunker system construction in 1943 as part of the Atlantic wall. Photo No. 1 : Start of the Sillon, looking NW at NW slope of Sillonon  16/04/2004 at low tide. Photo No. 2 : detail of SE slope looking NE at low tide on 16/04/2004. Photo No. 3 : Rocher Min Buas at low tide, North of Sillon de Talbert. Photo No. 4 : preferential flows below protection riprap near start of Sillon, NW slope at low tide on 16/04/2004.  Some info {http://www.conservatoire-du-littoral.fr/front/process/}.
See also the Atlantic Wall fortifications around Pleubian (Pleumeur-Gautier, Créac'h Maout) in the Civil Engineering Structures section.
c23
- Plage du Port-Morvan, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). Located 1.2 km Sout-West of Lle Port de Dahouët and 2km Sout-West of Plage du Val-André, the small beach was blocked by an anti-tank wall, with a small opening in the middle and a machine gun position on the top. There was no other fortification. Photo No. 1 : German anti-tank wall on Sat. 1 May 2004 during mid ebb tide looking at the sea; the machine gun site is on the right. Photo No. 2 : German anti-tank wall on Sat. 1 May 2004 during mid ebb tide.
c24- Phare de Cordouan, Gironde (France).The lighthouse of Cordouan was built between 1584 and 1611 at the mouth of the Gironde estuary 7 km offshore. It was heightened in 1789 to its present form. It is 67.5 m high and its light is seen at more than 40 km. Note that the prisms were hand-cut by Augustin FRESNEL himself. The lower cylindrical section of the lighthouse is the original edifice and the upper conical shape is the extension completed in 1789. The Cordouan lighthouse is heritage-listed since 1862. Photo No. 1 : Phare de Cordouan at high tide on 5 July 2008 about 11:00. Photo No. 2 : Phare de Cordouan at mid-ebb tide on 5 July 2008 about 13:00. Photo No. 3 : view on 5 July 2008. Photo No. 4 : details of the beacon and its Fresnel prisms on 5 July 2008. Photo No. 5 : view at low tide on 5 July 2008; note the reef around the lighthouse foundation. Photo No. 6 : view at low tide from the Cordouan eastern sand bar formation on 7 July 2008. Photo No. 7 : Cordouan eastern sand bar at early ebb tide; note people disembarking on the sand bar to access to Cordouan. Photo No. 8 : Cordouan southern sand bar; note the access jetty at high tide on the bottom left and the boats in the mooring/refuge on the North of the lighthouse; this photograph was about 10 minutes after Photo No. 7
.
ce25- Pointe de Grave, Gironde (France). Photo No. 1 : view on 5 July 2008 around 9:30. Photo No. 2 : Ferry between Royan and Pointe de Grave, leaving Pointe de Grave on 5 July 2008 about 13:30.
ce26- Pointe de la Coubre, Charente (France). Photo No. 1 : Phare de la Coubre on 20 July 2008; completed in  1905, the lighthouse is 58.5 m above ground (64 m above high water level); it was originally built at 1.8 km from the shoreline.  Photo No. 2 : German bunker (Atlantic wall) partly buried in the beach; it is now at the high water level line. Photo No. 3 : German bunkers from the Atlantic wall on the Plage de la Grande Cote on 20 July 2008.
ce27- Dune du Pilat (Pilat Sandbank), France. The Dune du Pilat, also called Dune de Pyla, is Europe's largest aeolian sand dune. It is 105 m high, 200 m wide at the base and 2,700 m long, and it contains over 60 Mm3 of sand. Photo No. 1 : view fron Cap Ferret at high tide on 7 Sept. 2008. Photo No. 2 : looking South at the dune and forest behind on 7 Sept. 2008. Photo No. 3: looking at the Banc d'Arguin on 7 Sept. 2008 at mide ebb tide. Photo No. 4 : paragliders above the dune on 7 Sept. 2008.
Takatoyo beach, Enshu coast     Tide calculations worldwide (in French)

Atlantic wall (Mur de l'Atlantique) along French coastlines
See the Atlantic Wall section in Civil Engineering Structures. Read Coastal Observations: The Atlantic Wall in Bretagne Nord (North Brittany), France (Shore & Beach, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 10-12 & Front cover)
aw1- Les Rospects, Pointe Saint-Mathieu, France. The battery included at least four 150 mm gun bunkers and several other fortifications. Photo No. 2 : 150 mm gun bunker No. 1
on 15/04/2004. Photo No. 4 : fortification in frot of the 150 mm gun bunkers on 15/04/2004, with Tourelle Les Vieux Moines in background.
aw3- Pointe du Petit Minou, Goulet de Brest, France. Based in and above the Fort du Minou, the battery protected the entrance to the Goulet de Brest.  Photo No. 1 :  105 mm gun German bunker on 14/04/2004. Photo No. 2  Phare du Petit Minou and Fort from a 105 mm gun bunket on 20/04/2004 at low tide. Photo No. 3 : Observation and transmission tower inside Fort du Petit Minou on 20/04/200, viewed from Phare du Petit Minou.
aw4- Pointe de Portzic, Goulet de Brest, France. Based below the phare du Portzic, the battery was placed at the end of the Goulet de Brest. It waa designe to include four 105 mm gun bunkers, three 88 mm gun bunkers, and three 150 mm gun bunkers. Photo No. 1 : 105 mm gun German bunker on 14/04/2004. Photo No. 2 : 88 mm gun German bunker on 14/04/2004 just below Phare de Portzig. Photo No. 3 : View of the Goulet de Brest from a 105 mm gun German bunker on 14/04/2004.
aw5-
Plage des Vallées, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). A 10 km long beach from Pléneuf-Val-André to Equy included Plage des Vallées, Plage de Nantois, Plage de la Ville-Berneuf, Caroual. The Western end was protected by a strong bunker overlooking the Plage des Vallées. Photo No. 1 : view from the roof the bunker looking at Plage des Vallees on 28/2/2004 at mid flood tide, with the beach under snow after Northernly snow falls. Photo No. 2 : View of a communication tunnel from the beach; parts of the blockhaus broke and landed on the beach in the mid 1990s. Photo No. 4 : observation bunker , with machine gun bunker behind at St Pabu beach on 18 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 5 : St Pabu beach from inside the machine gun bunker on 18 Apr. 2004, with the Verdelet island in background. Photo No. 6 : bunker (blockhaus) for gun above St Pabu beach on 18 Apr. 2004.
aw6- Plage du Val-André, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). The 2 km long beach was protected by at least 3 concrete bunker systems. One series of bunker was located at the Pointe des Murs Blancs; it include a casemate for machine gun and probably a larger bunker above. There was a concrete bunker (blockhaus) about middle of the beach (presently rue des Bignons), and there was a bunker system at Pointe de Pléneuf (also called Château-Tanguy) with an observation post overlooking both Plage du Val-André and Plage des Vallées. Photo No 1 : Les Mur Blancs, German bunker for machine gun on 18 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 2 : Looking NE at the Val-André beach from the casemate at high tide on 18 Apr. 2004.
aw8- Pointe de Kermorvan, Le Conquet, France. The Pointe de Kermorvan was a heavily fortified position defending the Northern entrance of Le Conquet harbour. The Kermorvan peninsula is covered by numerous German fortifications, including two 105-mm guns at Fort de Kermorvan, two large bunkers for guns, several Tobruk bunkers, especially on the Northern part of the peninsula, and one large circular turret (at least 2 levels deep) facing le Fort de l'Ilette on the Northern part of peninsula. Photo No. 1 : 105 mm gun German bunker on 19/04/2004, North of Fort de Kermorvan, with Phare de kermorvan on the right. Photo No. 2 : Tobrouk position above the Phare de Kermorvan on 19 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 3 : Tobrouk position overlooking the Fort de L'ilette on 19 Apr. 2004.
aw9- Pointe des Renards, Le Conquet, France. The Pointe des Renards was on the Southern side of Le Conquet harbour, facing the Fort de Kermorvan. The Pointe was equipped with at least two bunkers for guns with an additional fortification further South. Photo No. 1 : German bunker for gun, Pointe des Renards on 20/04/2004; the casemate faced South. Photo No. 2 : Pointe des Renards et Tourelle des Renards on 20/04/2004 at low tide, note the German bunker on the far right.
aw11- Aber Wrac'h, Pays du Léon, Bretagne, France. The entrance of the Aber Wrac'h was protected by several fortifications. At least two bunkers were located on Fort de Cézon, and there were several small bockhaus on the left entrance banks. One unusual bunker covered both entrances of Aber Wrac'h and Aber Benoit. Photo No. 1 : German blockhaus covering both entrances of Aber Benoit and Aber Wrac'h on 22/04/2004 at mid ebb tide; note the roof shape to keep some grass or sans as camouflage; it was unusual that there were two wide openings on left and right covering respectively the Aber Benoit and Aber Wrac'h entrances; the visible opening covered the Aber Benoit. Photo No. 2 : looking at Aber Wrac'h entrance from inside the bunker on 22/04/2004 at mid ebb tide, with the Phare de L'Ile Vierge in background. Photo No. 3 : observation bunker on 22/04/2004 covering the entrances of both Aber Benoit and Aber Wrac'h (mid ebb tide); the previous bunker is in background.
aw12-
Pointe de la Coubre, Charente (France). Photo No. 1 : German bunker (Atlantic wall) partly buried in the beach in front of Phare de la Coubre; the bunker is now at the high water level line. Photo No. 2 : German bunkers from the Atlantic wall on the Plage de la Grande Cote on 20 July 2008.

Coastlines of China

cc01- Pearl River delta, China. Photo No. 1 : Pearl river delta in Guangzhou, in front of the Guangzhou Ramada Hotel on 28 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 2 : Pearl river delta in Guangzhou, in front of the Guangzhou Ramada Hotel on 28 Nov. 2006.
Humen outlet : Photo No. 11 : Humen outlet and matsu temple, Pearl river delta on 29 Nov. 2006 around 17:00, view from right bank. Photo No. 12 :
Old Chinese fort protecting the Humen outlet entrance, Pearl river delta on 29 Nov. 2006; the fort was part of a defense system of the Humen inlet entrance, and it was used in 1841 and 1856.
Macau : Photo No. 21 : Macau, Pearl river delta on 29 Nov. 2006 at low tide. Photo No. 22 : Macau, Pearl river delta on 29 Nov. 2006 at low tide. Photo No. 23 : Macau, Pearl river delta on 29 Nov. 2006 at low tide.
Modaomen outlet : Photo No. 31 : Modaomen outlet and bridge, Pearl river delta on 29 Nov. 2006 at low tide, view from the right bank.

Coastlines of Italy

c30- Bari, Italy. Photo No. 1 : detached breakwaters in front of Bari (Lungomare street) on 18 Feb. 2004. Photo No. 2 : entrance of Bari fishing harbour on 18 Feb. 2003.
c31- Venice, Italy and its lagoon (laguna) . Photo No. 1 : Palazzo Ducale, Piazza San Marco, Laguna Veneta on 30 June 007 around 12:00 noon. Photo No. 2 : Grand Canal, Laguna Veneta
on 30 June 007 around 12:00 noon. Photo No. 3 : Rio deli Orso, off the Grand Canal, on 30 June 007 around 12:00 noon. Photo No. 4 : Rio di San Angelo, Laguna Veneta on 30 June 007 around 12:00 noon. Photo No. 5 : Isola di San Giorgio Maggiore, Laguna Veneta on 30 June 2007 around 17:00. Photo No. 6 : Isola di San Servolo, Laguna Veneta on 30 June 2007 around 17:00. Photo No. 7 : small canal in the Lido island, Venice, Italy on 1 July 2007 around 8:30 am - Looking towards the Laguna in background. Photo No. 8 : Certosa island, Laguna Veneta, view from Lido on 2 July 2007 around 7:00am. Photo No. 9 : canal between Lido and Certosa islands, Laguna Veneta, view from Lido on 2 July 2007 around 7:00am.

Coastlines of Taiwan
ct1- Beinan river mouth, Taitung, East coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : looking upstream at the river bed about 200 m upstream of the Pacific Ocean on 23 Nov. 2006.
ct2-  Tungkang river estuary (Dongkan river), Pingtung county, West coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : Tungkang river at Wulung on 18 Nov. 2006; tidal section of the river at high tide. Photo No.2 : Fishing raft made of bamboos on
Tungkang river at Wulung on 18 Nov. 2006.
ct3- Fangshan river mouth, Pingtung county, West coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : Fangshan river mouth, 10 km South of Tungkang on 23 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 2 :
Fangshan river mouth on 23 Nov. 2006.
ct4- Dapeng lagoon, Tungkang (Dongkan), Pingtung county, South-West coast of Taiwan. The Dapeng lagoon was used during World War II by the Japanese as a seaplane air base; it was tehn called "Datan". In 1949, the Chinese built an air force academy on the site. It became a national scenic area in 1997. Photo No. 1 : Dapeng lagoon on 26 Nov. 2006 around 15:00, looking South West from the former air base. Photo No. 2 :
Dapeng lagoon on 26 Nov. 2006 looking North West from the former air base.
ct5- Tungkang (Dongkan), Pingtung county, South-West coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : black sand beach on the Taiwan straight, in front of the Dapeng lagoon on 26 Nov. 2006; swash zone around 16:00. Photo No. 2 : black sand beach on the Taiwan straight, in front of the Dapeng lagoon on 26 Nov. 2006; swash zone around 16:00.
ct6- Erluanbi (Eluan Pi), South Cape of Taiwan , Kenting, Pingtung county,Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : lighthouse on 25 Nov. 2006, looking North. Photo No. 2 : lighthouse on 19 Nov. 2006, looking East. Photo No. 3 : Mount Dejian (318 m) looking North from Erluanbi; note the "sail rock" in front of Mount Dejian on 19 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 4 : Coral reef South of the Eluan Pi lighthouse on 25 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 5 : Coral reef and "sea pavillon", South-West of the lighthouse on 25 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 6 : the "sail rock" looking North from Erluanbi on 19 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 7 : Coral reef and "sea pavillon" cliff, at Erluanbi on 19 Nov. 2006.
ct7- Hualien, East coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : Hualien harbour entrance on 22 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 2 : Hualien harbour entrance lighhouse on 22 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 3 : Me-Lun river mouth in front of Hualien harbour entrance on 23 Nov. 2006; note the gravel and pebble bar obstructing the river mouth.
ct8- Sansiantai, Taitung county, East coast of Taiwan. Located about 60 km North of Taitung city. Photo No. 1 : East coast looking North from Sansiantai on 23 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 2 : Sansiantai on 23 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 3 : Sansiantai on 23 Nov. 2006, view from the 8-arches bridge. Photo No. 4 : White waters at the foot of Sansiantai on 23 Nov. 2006.


Tidal bores (mascaret, pororoca)
b1- Mascaret on the Dordogne river, at Vayres (au Port de Saint Pardon, France) : looking in the bore direction, looking upstream (Courtesy of Fabrice COLAS).
    Tidal bore (mascaret) on 27 Sept. 2000 : Photo No. 1 : arriving bore; Photo No. 2 : kayacks and surfers; Photo No. 3 : close to St Pardon; Photo No. 4 : in front of St Pardon.
    Tidal bore on 21 Feb. 2004 : Photo No. 1 : arriving bore (surge Froude number about 1.05 to 1.1) at St Pardon; Photo No. 2 : bore moving upstream towards Vayres. Photo No. 3 : fisherman catching lamproie fish with net few minutes prior the bore arrival between Vayres and St Pardon.
    Tidal bore on 4 July 2008 : Photo No. 1 : view from Saint Pardon : very weak undular surge. Photo No. 2 : looking upstream towards Vayres.
    Tidal bore on 20 July 2008 at sunrise : Photo No. 1 : Dordogne river in front of Port de Saint Pardon before the tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : ripple in the channel centreline marking the tidal bore front, view from the left bank. Photo No. 3 : wave breaking next to the left bank. Photo No. 4 : whelps 60 seconds after the tidal bore front passage.
   
Tidal bore on 21 July 2008 at sunrise : Photo No. 1 : tidal bore front approching the jetty of Saint Pardon at 07:03. Photo No. 2 : wave breaking at the jetty during the wave front passage. Photo No. 3 : wave breaking on the jetty about 58 s after the tidal bore front passage.
    Tidal bore on 2 September 2008 evening : Photo No. 1: View from Port de Saint Pardon, looking downstream. Photo No. 2 : surfers in front of Port de Saint Pardon. Photo No. 3 : surfers on the second wave crest passing in front of Port de Saint Pardon.
    Menhir de Pierrefitte : neolithic mounument located at Chateau Saint Martial, on the right bank next to the old Pierrefitte harbour which serviced Saint Emilion up the 16th century.
b2- Mascaret on the Seine river (France) : Photo No. 1 : at Caudebec-en Caux around 1960, view from the bac (ferry) looking at the right bank (Photograph by Raymond HUON, Courtesy of Sequana-Normandie) - Photo No. 2 : Bac de Caudebec-en Caux facing the mascaret in 1958, view from the right bank (boats and ships had to leave the wharf to face the  mascaret in a similar way) (Copyright: Alain HUON, Courtesy of Sequana-Normandie) - Photo No. 3 : the passage of the mascaret in the 1930s, photograph taken at the ramp of the ferry at Yainville (France), right bank, near the old power station (Courtesy of G. FROMAGER) - Photo No. 4 : after the passage of the masaret looking upsteam, view from right bank between Yainville and Jumieges, looking toward  Heurteauville; Note the quite river upstream of the bore (on the left top) (Courtesy of Sequana-Normandie) - Photo No. 5 : the mascaret at Aizier, near Quilleboeuf (view from left bank) (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN) - Photo No. 6 :  mascaret at Quilleboeuf (Photo I. Hernault, Le Havre) (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN) - Photo No. 7 : the mascaret at Villequier, ancient gravure (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN) - Photo No. 8 : mascaret on the Risle, a tributary of the Seine river at Pont-Audemer (Collection A. Renard, editeur, Pont-Audemer) (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN).    More about the Mascaret of the Seine river ...
b3- Tidal bore near Truro (Bay of Fundy, Canada) :looking upstream, detail of bank erosion (Courtesy of Larry SMITH). Photo No. 3 : arriving tidal bore on the Salmon river on 22 Sept. 2001 (Courtesy of Dr M.R. GOURLAY). Photo No. 4 :  sideview of tidal bore on the Salmon river on 22 Sept. 2001 (Courtesy of Dr M.R. GOURLAY)
b4  Severn river (England) : Photo No. 1 : at Awre where the estuary is wide and shallow (Courtesy of Professor D.H. PEREGRINE) - Photo No. 2 : further upriver where the Severn river is deeper and narrower (Courtesy of Professor D.H. PEREGRINE).
b5- The tidal bore on the Qiantang River near Hangzhou, China, also known as the Hangchow or Hangzou bore : Photo No. 1 : view from the left bank (Courtesy of Dr J. Eric JONES); Photo No. 2 : another detailed view (Courtesy of Dr J. Eric JONES).
b6- The tidal bore of the Petitcodiac river, near Moncton (Bay of Fundy, Canada). Photo No. 1 : in spring 1908? near Moncton, the bore height being about 1 to 1.5 m (Courtesy of the Petitcodiac Riverkeeper) - Photo No. 2 : on 23 Mar. 2000, the bore height was estimated to be about 0.5 m. The river discharge was larger than usual because of snow melt (Courtesy of the Petitcodiac Riverkeeper).
b7- Tidal bore of the Daly river, Northern Territory,  Australia. Photograph taken late in 2000 when the water flow is lowest (Courtesy of Gary Higgins, The Mango Farm).
b8- Tidal bore (mascaret) on the Couesnon river (France). The tidal bore is significantly weaker since the construction of an upstream barrage. Photo No. 1 : approaching bore on 7 March 2004 around 18:20. Photo No. 2 : bore seen from the Tour de Gabriel on 7 March 2004 (bore flowing from right to left). Photo No. 3 : Couesnon river at low tide on 4 Feb. 2004 before the mascaret, looking upstream from Mont Saint Michel monastery.
b9- Tidal bore of the Sélune river, Baie du Mont Saint Michel (France).  Tidal bore on 7 April 2004 : tidal range = 13.75 m (highest tidal range for 2004). Read Coastal Observations: The Tidal Bore of the Sélune River, Baie du Mont Saint Michel, France (Shore & Beach, 2004, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 14-16).
Photo No. 1 : Sélune river estuary, viewed from left bank at Roche-Torin at sunrise on 7/4/04 beofre tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore seen from Roche-Torin far away in front of Ile de Tombelaine with seagulls (white dots) in front of the bore. Photo No. 3 : advancing tidal bore in front of Pointe du Grouin du Sud.  Photo No. 4 : advancing bore front viewed from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 5 : advancing bore front viewed from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 6 : advancing bore front just in front of Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 7 : tidal bore advancing upstream, seen from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 8 : approaching tidal bore, one hour later, upstream of Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 9 : approaching tidal bore, one hour later, upstream of Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 10 : Sélune river tidal bore approaching Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 11 : Sélune river tidal bore passing below Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04; note the bridge pier "knife" shape; note also that the bore became an undular bore just downstream of the bridge, possibly because of a local scour hole. Photo No. 12 : strong current below Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) on 7/4/04 after the tidal bore passage, view from left bank looking upstream.
   Tidal bore on 2 August 2008: tidal range = 12.65 m. Photo No. 1 :
Sélune river tidal bore at Roche Torin on 2/8/08 at sunset, viewed from the left bank (bore propagation from left to right). Photo No. 2 : tidal bore propagation past Roche Torin on 2/8/08. Photo No. 3 : tidal bore past Roche Torin on 2/8/08. Photo No. 4 : Sélune river tidal bore at Pontaubault on 2/8/08 at sunset, about 1 hour after flowing past Roche Torin. Photo No. 5 : Sélune river tidal bore at Pontaubault on 2/8/08, approaching the histoical Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge); note the undular nature of the tidal bore and the whelps (éteules). Photo No. 6 : interactions of the whelps (éteules) with the bridge piers shortly after the tidal bore front passage on 2/8/08.
   Tidal bore on 3 August 2008: tidal range = 12.65 m. Photo No. 1 :
Sélune river tidal bore at Roche Torin on 3/8/08 shortly after sunrise, viewed from the left bank (bore propagation from left to right). Photo No. 2 : tidal bore propagation at Roche Torin on 3/8/08.
b10- Tidal bore of the Dordogne river (France) on 27 September 2000
b11- Tidal bore of the Garonne river (France) on 5 July 2008. Tidal bore on 5 July 2008 at Arcins (Latresnes). Photo No. 1 : tidal bore entering the Arcins channel. Photo No. 2 : incoming undular bore in the Arcins channel around 6:20am looking downstream. Photo No. 3 : whelps (
éteules) behind the bore front shaking the pontoon and jetty. Tidal bore on 5 July 2008 at Langoiran. Photo No. 1 : very weak bore with some was breaking next to the left bank about 7:05am, while there was no bore in the main channel nor next to the right bank. Tidal bore on 6 July 2008 at Arcins (Latresnes). Photo No. 1 : looking downstream at the incoming bore around 7:10am; note the small ripple formed by the tidal bore. Photo No. 2 : undular bore passing in front of the photographer. Photo No. 3 : propagating bore; note the strong mixing and reflection in the inlet in the foreground.
   Tidal bore on 19 July 2008 at Podensac.
Photo No. 1 : large-scale vortical structures at the free-surface on the channel centreline on 19 July 2008 at end of ebb tide flow (18:30) shortly before tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore propagation next to left bank looking dowsntream at 18:43. Photo No. 3 : details of the bore front impact on the left bank.
   Tidal bore on 20 July 2008 at Langoiran. Photo No. 1 : surfer riding the bore front next to the left bank. Photo No. 2 : surfer getting back to the boat after the ride.
   Tidal  bore on 2 September 2008 at Podensac. Photo No. 1 : Advancing bore with surfers. Photo No. 2 : surfers next to the left bank.
   Tidal bore on 3 September 2008 at Baurech. Photographs taken from a kayack surfing the Garonne River bore. Photo No. 1 : looking towards the left bank while riding ahead of the first wave crest. Photo No. 2 : looking towards the right bank at several kayacks riding ahead the first wave crest. Photo No. 3 : riding the whelps behind the bore front.
b12- Tidal bore of the Arguenon River, Bretagne (Brittany). Photo No. 1 : tidal bore at Les Pierre Sonantes, le Guildo on 15 Oct. 2008. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore betwen Le Guildo and Créhen.
b13- Tidal bore of the Frémur Creek, Côtes d'Armor, Bretagne (Brittany). Photo No. 1 : tidal bore at Port-à-la Duc on  15 Oct. 2008. Photo No. 2 :
tidal bore upstream of Port-à-la Duc on  16 Oct. 2008.
    More about Tidal bores, Mascarets and Pororoca ...
    More about the Mascaret of the Seine river ...
    More about Tidal bore hydraulics ...

Whirlpools (Maelstrøm)
wh1- Naruto whirlpools. On Wed. 17 Oct. 2001, during the ebb flow (current from Insland Sea to Pacific Ocean), a freighter became trapped in the vortices, its bow hit the rocks and the ship was grounded until the next high tide. Photo No. 1 : general view from Ohnaruto bridge. Photo No. 2 : whirlpools and vortices with a freighter in background, note the large eddy (over 50-m diameter) on the right. Photo No. 3 : tourist boat in the middle of the whirlpools. Photo No. 4 : street of vortex. Photo No. 5 : Freighter and whirlpools. Photo No. 6 : whirlpool in foregound right with stranded freighter in background. Photo No. 7 : freighter trapped in Naruto whirlpools which became grounded beneath the bridge. Photo No. 8 : grounded bow of the freighter. Photo No. 9 : Flood flow on 9 July 2002 beneath the bridge (Courtesy of Drs ICHIMIYA and BROWN). Photo No. 10: Turbulent vortices during the flood flow on 9 July 2002 (Courtesy of Drs ICHIMIYA and BROWN).
wh2- Whirlpools at Naruto (Japan) on 17 October 2001
    "Experiencing Naruto Whirlpools." IAHR Newsletter, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 17 & 28-29.  (Download PDF file)
                More about Whirlpools ...
 

Great Wall of China Civil Engineering Structures

Presentation
ce1-  Pont du Gard, Nîmes aqueduct, France - View from the right bank in June 1998.
ce2- Horyuji temple, Nara Prefecture, Jaoan. The world's oldest wooden structures (Asuka period mid 6th - beginning 8th century AD) selected by UNESCO as part of the World Heritage. Photo No. 1 : Saiin Garan (Western preccint) : Daikòdò (Great Hall), Heian period (beginning of 8th - end of 8th century AD) on 18 Oct. 2001. Struck by lightning in 925. Rebuilt in 990. Photo No. 2 : Saiin Garan : Kondò (Main Hall),  Asuka period (Mid 6th - beginning of 8th century AD) on 18 Oct. 2001. Photo No. 3 : Saiin Garan : Gojù-no-Tò (5 storey pagoda), Asuka period (Mid 6th - beginning of 8th century AD), 31.5 m high on 18 Oct. 2001. Photo No. 4 : Chùgùji (Chùgù temple) : Tòin Shòrò (Bell House of the Eastern Preccint),  Kamakura period (Late 12th - early 14th century AD) on 18 Oct. 2001. The bell (inside) is from the Nara period.
ce3- Hama-matsu castle (AD 1570, Japan) - The castle stands on unbonded rock foundation. The method of building stonework is called "Nozura-zumi". The castle was rebuilt after WWII. Photo No. 1 : castle during the cherry blossom on 1 Apr. 1999. Photo No.2 : detail of the unbonded rock foundation on 1 Apr. 1999.
ce4- Sanjusangen-do temple (AD 798/last rebuilt 1633), Kyoto, Japan. Earthquake resistant building, constructed on timber piles set in a pit filled with superposed  layers of sand and clay.
ce5- Eiffel tower (1889, France). Designed by Gustave EIFFEL (1832-1923) for the Centennial Exposition of 1889 to commemorate the French Revolution, the tower is 300-metre high made of open-lattice wrought iron. It was the tallest building in the world until 1929. Photo No. 1 : Eiffel tower in Aug. 1996 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON).
ce6- OhNaruto bridge, Japan. Also called Onaruto bridge, it links Awaji and Shikoku islands across the Naruto kaikyo, or Naruto strait, world-known for the Naruto whirlpools. Completed in 1985, the Ohnaruto bridge was designed to carry both cars and trains on the upper and lower decks respectively. The train link was never completed and the newer Akashi bridge does not carry trains. The bridge's lower deck carries today water between Awaji and Shikoku islands, and the tourist walkway. Photo No 1 : looking from the Southern end on 17 Oct. 2001. Photo No. 2 : view from the Southern abutment, note the freighter which became trapped in the whirlpool vortices and grounded during the ebb flow on 17 Oct. 2001.
        More on Ohnaruto bridge : introduction, drawings.        More on Naruto Strait : information.        More on Naruto Whirlpools...        Read more in Bridges in Japan.
ce7- Akashi bridge, Japan. Connecting Awaji island to Honshu, it is the world's longest suspension bridge (3.9 km long). Construction started in 1986 and was completed in 1998. The bridge length was expanded by 1 m during the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Photo No. 1 : looking from the Northen end on 16 Oct. 2001.
        More on Akashi bridge : general information, technical information.        Read more in Bridges in Japan.        Read more in Structurae database ...
ce8- Grande Arche de la D
éfense, Paris, France - La Grande Arche is located in La Défense, a western suburb of Paris. Completed in 1989, the  building is 110.9 m high, 112 m long and 106.9 m wide. The arch is inclined with a 6.33º  towards the "Grand Axe" of Le Louvre museum, The Obélisque, the Champs Elysées, the Arc de Triomphe and the Avenue de la Grande Armée. Shortly after completion, very strong winds were felt at the bottom of the Arch. This was caused by the natural strong winds experienced at La Défense associated by a Venturi effect induced by the arch shape. As a result, a 2,300 m2 surface area membrane ( ) was installed at the foot of the arch. The membrane is called Les Nuages ("The Clouds").  Photo No. 1 : looking West on 4 May 2003 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON).
    More on
La Grande Arche : {http://www.structurae.de/en/structures/data/str00133.php}, {http://www.structurae.de/en/structures/data/str00134.php}
ce9- Pont de Normandie, France - Completed in 1995, the Pont de Normandie is located next to the Seine river mouth. It is a suspension bridge. The total length is 2141 m and the central span is 856 m long. The main deck is 52 m above the highest water levels while the pylon height is 214.77 m. There are a total of 184 suspension cables. Cable lenghts range from 95 to 450 m. Part of the deck cantilevering out from the pylons was built as a hollow box made of prestressed concrete, but about two thirds of the deck were made of a steel. The estuary of the Seine river is well-known for strong Westerly winds and the bridge was designed to sustain wind speeds of up to 300 km/h. The bridge deck was streamlined to reduce the wind drag and its design was tested in wind tunnel. The wind reference velocities were an average velocity of 35.3 m/s at 10 m/s above ground, 44 m/s at deck level and 49 m/s at the top of pylon (210 m above water). The bridge deck is a box-girder to increase the torsional rigidity of the bridge and to limit the first torsional period to less than half of the first vertical flexion period. The deck was streamlined to reduce wind forces, with the box-girder height of less than 3.0 m. The design was aimed to reduce vortex shedding by increasing the width to height ratio of the deck. The pylon shape was selected to limit second order effects and to increase its structural capacity to resist wind loads. Although the vibration periods of the cables would have been about 4 seconds, four damping ropes were installed to interconnect the cables and to reduce the first period to about 1.25 seconds.
Photo No. 1 : looking North from the left bank on 2 May 2003 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). Photo No. 2 : looking South at the Northern pylon on 2 May 2003 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON).
    More on the Pont de Normandie : {http://www.structurae.de/en/structures/data/str00048.php}, {http://www.structurae.de/en/refs/subjects/sub0107.php}, {http://www.sequana-normandie.com/}
ce10- Biosphère, Montréal (Canada). Built on the île Sainte Hélène, the biosphere was
designed by architect Buckminister FULLER and completed in 1967 for Expo 67.  Photo No. 1 : Biosphere on 8 May 2002. Photo No. 2 : Biosphere on 12 July 2002. Photo No. 3 : Detail of the structure on 12 July 2002.
ce11-
Pont C.N. du Port, Montréal (Canada). Pivoting railway steel bridge above Lachine Canal downstream of Ecluse de Saint-Gabriel Photo No. 1 : open bridge structure and Lachine canal on 8 May 2004. Photo No. 2 : looking downstream of Saint Gabriel lock on 8 May 2004; the pivoting bridge is in between a newer concrete road bridge (Pont Wellington) and a steel railway bridge (Pont C.N. Wellington).
ce12-  Grain stores and grain elevators,
Montréal (Canada). The grain stores at Parc du Moulin à Vent were built in 4 stages between 1903 and 1958, to store grain which arrived frorm Western Canada and departed by Sea. The most recent parts were made of reinforced concrete and comprised 115 vertical chambers, each 30 m deep and up to 8 m in diameter. Due to changes in the global grain market, the elevator became obsolete and was closed in 1996. Cited by architects such as Grosplus and La Corbusier, the North-American grain elevators were a major inspiration for the Modernist movement. Photo No. 1 : grain stores at Parc du Moulin à Vent on 8 May 2002, with Lachine canal in foreground.
ce13- Three Gorges Project and Dam (Yichang, China, 2002-2007). Concrete gravity dam. Length: 2300 m, Height: 181 m. Powerplant: 32 Francis turbines (700 MW each). Photo No. 1 : Overall view of the scale model of the project on 20 Oct. 2004, looking from the right bank; the dam wall is in white. Photo No. 2 : Dam wall viewed from the left abutment on 20 Oct. 2004. Photo No. 3 : Construction of the third section on 20 Oct. 2004; view from the dam crest above the spillway section, looking towards the right abutment. Photo No. 4 : Navigation  lock on 20 Oct. 2004; the navigation lock is a two-way system, with 5 locks each; each lock is 280 m long and 34 m wide. Photo No. 5 : Three Gorges Reservoir on 20  Oct. 2004, looking from the right bank at a hydrofoil passenger ship. Photo No. 6: scour outlet discharge below the spillway section on 20 Oct. 2004 (Q = 7000 m3/s, V = 35 m/s). Photo No. 7 : high-velocity flow from an outlet sluice on 20 Oct. 2004 (V = 35 m/s); note the large amount of 'white waters' highlighting strong free-surface aeration. Photo No. 8 : free-surface aeration along the bottom outlet jet flow downstream of the spillway section on 20 Oct. 2004 (V = 35 m/s). Photo No. 9: scale model of a 700 MW Francis turbine on 20 Oct. 2004.
ce14- Eleanor Schonell Bridge, Brisbane QLD (Australia) - Opened on 17 December 2006, the bridge is designed to carry buses, bicycles and pedestrians
across the Brisbane River linking Dutton Park to the University of Queenland St Lucia campus. The cable-stayed bridge has two 70-m high piers and a 114 m span. During construction, and prior to naming, it was nicknamed the "Green Bridge". The bridge length is 516 m at deck  level, that is 11.5 m above the water at high tide. The cable stays were post-stressed at 45% of their ultimate capacity . Photo No. 1 : view on 15 August 2006, looking at the underside from the left pier foot. Photo No. 2 : looking at the deck and right pier from the left pier on 15 Aug. 2006 with some 4th Year UQ Civil Engineering students. Photo No. 3 : looking towards the left bank on 15 Aug. 2006. Photo No. 4 : details of the cable anchor on the left pier on 15 Aug. 2006. Photo No. 5 : cable "dead" anchor near the right bank on 15 Aug. 2006. Photo No. 6 : skeleton of the central key section installed on  11Aug. 2006; photograph taken on 15 Aug. 2006 from the ferry looking upstream at the steel structure; a footbridge allowed access from one end of the other of the bridge .Photo No. 7 : looking at the right pier and the stayed cables from the middle span on 15 Aug. 2006; note some cable sagging.
Photo No. 10 : view from left bank on 6 Oct. 2005. Photo No. 11 : construction of the bridge piers on 19 Jan. 2006, viewed from left bank. Photo No. 12 : view from the left bank on 21 Feb. 2006. Photo No. 13 : looking upstream at the bridge construction on 10 Apr. 2006. Photo No. 14 : view from left bank on 9 May 2006. Photo No. 15 : view from the left bank (Dutton Park ferry terminal) on 26 June 2006.
Photo No. 16 : view from St Lucia, on the official opening on 17 Dec. 2006. Photo No. 17: view from Dutton Park on the 17 Dec. 2006. Photo No. 18 : detail of a single strand; each cable stay includes either 31 strands (short stay) or 37 strands (long stay); the ultimate capacity of a strand is 28 tonnes and the fatigue resistance is 2,000,000 cycles. Photo No. 19 : Commemorative certificate of the bridge opening on 17 Dec. 2006.
ce15-
Phare de Cordouan, Gironde (France).The lighthouse of Cordouan was built between 1584 and 1611 at the mouth of the Gironde estuary 7 km offshore. It was heightened in 1789 to its present form. It is 67.5 m high and its light is seen at more than 40 km. Note that the prisms were hand-cut by Augustin FRESNEL himself. The lower cylindrical section of the lighthouse is the original edifice and the upper conical shape is the extension completed in 1789. The Cordouan lighthouse is heritage-listed since 1862. Photo No. 1 : Phare de Cordouan at high tide on 5 July 2008 about 11:00. Photo No. 2 : Phare de Cordouan at mid-ebb tide on 5 July 2008 about 13:00. Photo No. 3 : view on 5 July 2008. Photo No. 4 : details of the beacon and its Fresnel prisms on 5 July 2008. Photo No. 5 : view at low tide on 5 July 2008; note the reef around the lighthouse foundation. Photo No. 6 : view at low tide from the Cordouan eastern sand bar formation on 7 July 2008. Photo No. 7 : Cordouan eastern sand bar at early ebb tide; note people disembarking on the sand bar to access to Cordouan. Photo No. 8 : Cordouan southern sand bar; note the access jetty at high tide on the bottom left and the boats in the mooring/refuge on the North of the lighthouse; this photograph was about 10 minutes after Photo No. 7.

Atlantic wall (Mur de l'Atlantique)
The German Atlantic wall (Atlantikwall in German, Mur de l'Atlantique in French) was build by the German occupation forces in the period 1941-1944 along the coasts of France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Norway and Denmark. Its main goal was to prevent the Allied landings. (Ref. {http://www.atlantikwall.net/}, {http://perso.wanadoo.fr/passion.histoire/mur.htm}, {http://www.atlanticwall.dk/})
Read Coastal Observations: The Atlantic Wall in Bretagne Nord (North Brittany), France (Shore & Beach, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 10-12 & Front cover)
aw1- Les Rospects, Pointe Saint-Mathieu, France. The battery included at least four 150 mm gun bunkers and several other fortifications. Photo No. 1 : Rospects German Blockhaus, on 15/04/2004 around 20:30; looking East at bunkers 2, 3, and 4. Photo No. 2 : 150 mm gun bunker No. 1 on 15/04/2004. Photo No. 3 : 150 mm gun German bunker No. 2 on 15/04/2004, tunnel to the gun station. Photo No. 4 : fortification in frot of the 150 mm gun bunkers on 15/04/2004, with Tourelle Les Vieux Moines in background.
aw2 - Batterie de Kéringar, Pointe Saint-Mathieu, France. The Kéringar Blockhaus system ("Graf Spee"), Lochrist, Pointe St Mathieu was equipped with four 280 mm guns Krupp SKL/40 which could shoot 283 kg projectile up to 27.8 km. Photo No. 1 : 280 mm gun bunket on 15/04/2004; note the small observation post on roof, looking East-South-East. Photo No. 2 : 280 mm gun German bunker on 15/04/2004. Photo No. 3 : Ammunition German bunker next to the 280 mm gun bunket on 15/04/2004, looking West; note the house roof shape for camouflage. Photo No. 4 : German Bunker for 280 mm gun fire control on 14 Apr. 2004.
aw3- Pointe du Petit Minou, Goulet de Brest, France. Based in and above the Fort du Minou, the battery protected the entrance to the Goulet de Brest.  Photo No. 1 :  105 mm gun German bunker on 14/04/2004. Photo No. 2  Phare du Petit Minou and Fort from a 105 mm gun bunket on 20/04/2004 at low tide. Photo No. 3 : Observation and transmission tower inside Fort du Petit Minou on 20/04/200, viewed from Phare du Petit Minou. Photo No. 4 : same building on 20/04/2004, note the concrete treatment for camouflage.
aw4- Pointe de Portzic
, Goulet de Brest, France. Based below the phare du Portzic, the battery was placed at the end of the Goulet de Brest. It waa designe to include four 105 mm gun bunkers, three 88 mm gun bunkers, and three 150 mm gun bunkers. Photo No. 1 : 105 mm gun German bunker on 14/04/2004. Photo No. 2 : 88 mm gun German bunker on 14/04/2004 just below Phare de Portzig. Photo No. 3 : View of the Goulet de Brest from a 105 mm gun German bunker on 14/04/2004.
aw5-
Plage des Vallées, du Nantois, de la Ville-Berneuf, de St Pabu and de Caroual, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). A 10 km long beach from Pléneuf-Val-André to Erquy included Plage des Vallées, Plage du Nantois, Plage de la Ville-Berneuf, Plage de St Pabu and Caroual. The Western end was protected by a strong bunker overlooking the Plage des Vallées. In addition, the beaches were covered by three German army artillery batteries of four 155-mm guns each, located at La Croix des Landes, Le Souchay and Les Petites Landes about 3-4 km inland. At St Pabu, the fortification system consisted of at least 3 bunkers for observation, machine gun and gun. Photo No. 1 : view from the roof the bunker looking at Plage des Vallées on 28/2/2004 at mid flood tide, with the beach under snow after Northernly snow falls. Photo No. 2 : View of a communication tunnel from the beach, Plage des Vallées; parts of the blockhaus broke and landed on the beach in the mid 1990s. Photo No. 3 : German bunker for machine gun looking NE on 18 Apr. 2004;the blockhaus protected the St Pabu beach toward Plage des Vallées. Photo No. 4 : observation bunker , with machine gun bunker behind at St Pabu beach on 18 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 5 : St Pabu beach from inside the machine gun bunker on 18 Apr. 2004, with the Verdelet island in background. Photo No. 6 : bunker (blockhaus) for gun above St Pabu beach on 18 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 7 : Looking at gun opening from inside the bunker (blockhaus) for gun above St Pabu beach on 18 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 8 : Details of steel anchors for camouflage nets, bunker (blockhaus) for gun above St Pabu beach on 18 Apr. 2004.
aw5a- La Croix des Landes, Saint-Alban, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). German artillery fortification for four 155-mm guns covering both Plage du Val-André and Plage des Vallées. In addition of four blockhaus, there were fire control and observation bunkers near Le Péhouët overlooking the township of Pléneuf and both beachfronts. Photo No. 1 : side view of the four 155-m gun bunkers on 23 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 2 : gun opening of bunker No. 3 on 23 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 3 : Panoramic view from observation bunker on 23 Apr. 2004, overlooking Plage du Val-André (on left) and Plage des Vallées (on right); the houses are part of the township of Pléneuf.
aw5b- Le Souchay, Erquy, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). German artillery fortification for four 155-mm guns covering the Plages des Vallées, du Nantois, de la Ville-Berneuf, de St Pabu and de Caroual. Photo No. 1 : Bunker No. 4, looking at the back on Fri. 30 Apr. 2004; note the cracks on the corners caused by some ammunition explosion in 1944. Photo No. 2 : Looking West of side of bunkers 1, 2 and 3 on 1 May. 2004 at sunrise.
aw6- Plage du Val-André, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). The 2 km long beach was protected by at least 3 concrete bunker systems. One series of bunker was located at the Pointe des Murs Blancs; it include a casemate for machine gun and probably a larger bunker for 50-mm gun above. There was a concrete bunker (blockhaus) about middle of the beach (presently rue des Bignons), and there was a large bunker system at Pointe de Pléneuf (also called Château-Tanguy) with an observation post overlooking both Plage du Val-André and Plage des Vallées. In addition, the beach was covered by German army artillery (four 155-mm guns) located at La Croix des Landes, 5 km inland.  Photo No 1 : Les Mur Blancs, German bunker for machine gun on 18 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 2 : Looking NE at the Val-André beach from the casemate at high tide on 18 Apr. 2004.
aw7- Sémaphore de Créac'h Maout, L'Armor, Pleubian
, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). A radar station and observatory were stationed at Sémaphore, protected by a 105-mm gun bunker and some machine-gun bunkers. Photo No. 1: Sémaphore de Créac'h Maout, looking West on 16/04/2004. More info: {http://perso.wanadoo.fr/passion.histoire/mur.htm}.
aw8- Batterie de l'Enfer, Pleumeur-Gautier, Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). The Batterie de l'Enfer, at Pleumeur-Gautier, was designed for four155-mm gun bunkers protecting the river mouth of the Jaudy (Le Jaudy) and Trieux (Le Trieux) rivers. It was built and designed for the Army. Two bunkers were directed to protect the Jaudy river entrance, and another 2 for the Trieux river entrance. Completed in 1944 just before the Allied landing, no 155 mm gun was ever  installed. Photo No. 1 : Looking at the back of all 4 German bunkers on 16/04/2004. Photo No. 2 : Gun opening of a bunker on 15/04/2004. More info: {http://perso.wanadoo.fr/passion.histoire/mur.htm}.
aw9- Pointe de Kermorvan, Le Conquet,
France. The Pointe de Kermorvan was a heavily fortified position defending the Northern entrance of Le Conquet harbour. The Kermorvan peninsula is covered by numerous German fortifications, including two 105-mm guns at Fort de Kermorvan, two large bunkers for guns, several Tobruk bunkers, especially on the Northern part of the peninsula, and one large circular turret (at least 2 levels deep) facing le Fort de l'Ilette on the Northern part of peninsula. Photo No. 1 : 105 mm gun German bunker on 19/04/2004, North of Fort de Kermorvan, with Phare de kermorvan on the right. Photo No. 2 : Tobrouk position above the Phare de Kermorvan on 19 Apr. 2004. Photo No. 3 : Tobrouk position overlooking the Fort de L'ilette on 19 Apr. 2004.
aw10- Pointe des Renards, Le Conquet, France. The Pointe des Renards was on the Southern side of Le Conquet harbour, facing the Fort de Kermorvan. The Pointe was equipped with at least two bunkers for guns with an additional fortification further South. Photo No. 1 : German bunker for gun, Pointe des Renards on 20/04/2004; the casemate faced South. Photo No. 2 :
Pointe des Renards et Tourelle des Renards on 20/04/2004 at low tide, note the German bunker on the far right.
aw11- Brest, France. The Port de Brest was an important military harbour with a heavily-fortified submarine base. Photo No. 1 : Steel observation turret (
Petite cloche blindée d'observation) at St-Pierre-de-Quilbignon on 20/04/2004; the turret was at the top of bunker now covered by the street; the bell steel is more than 12 cm thick ! Photo No. 2 : idem on 20/04/2004.  Photo No. 3 : Idem, inside view of roof details.
aw12- Aber Wrac'h, Pays du L
éon, Bretagne, France. The entrance of the Aber Wrac'h was protected by several fortifications. At least two bunkers were located on Fort de Cézon, and there were several small bockhaus on the left entrance banks. One unusual bunker covered both entrances of Aber Wrac'h and Aber Benoit. Photo No. 1 : German blockhaus covering both entrances of Aber Benoit and Aber Wrac'h on 22/04/2004 at mid ebb tide; note the unsual roof shape while there were two wide openings on left and right coverign respectively the Aber Benoit and Aber Wrac'h entrances; the visible opening covered the Aber Benoit. Photo No. 2 : looking at Aber Wrac'h entrance from inside the bunker on 22/04/2004 at mid ebb tide, with the Phare de L'Ile Vierge in background. Photo No. 3 : observation bunker on 22/04/2004 covering the entrances of both Aber Benoir and Aber Wrac'h (mid ebb tide); the previous bunker is in background.
aw13- Plage du Port-Morvan,
Côtes d'Armor (Bretagne, France). Located 1.2 km Sout-West of Lle Port de Dahouët and 2km Sout-West of Plage du Val-André, the small beach was blocked by an anti-tank wall, with a small opening in the middle and a machine gun position on the top. There was no other fortification. Photo No. 1 : German anti-tank wall on Sat. 1 May 2004 during mid ebb tide looking at the sea; the machine gun site is on the right. Photo No. 2 : German anti-tank wall on Sat. 1 May 2004 during mid ebb tide.

Great Wall of China
Mutianyu
gw1- Refurbished section : Photo No. 1 : looking West on 19 Sep. 2001. Photo No. 2 : looking West on 19 Sep. 2001. Photo No. 3 : looking West on 19 Sep. 2001. Photo No. 4 : Steep stair case (h = 0.35 m, 1V:0.7H) on 19 Sept. 2001. Photo No. 5 : looking East on 19 Sept. 2001. Photo No. 6 : looking East on 19 Sept. 2001. Photo No. 7 : old cannon (19 Sept. 2001).
gw2- Non-refurbished section : Photo No. 1 : West of Mutianyu on 19 Sept. 2001. Photo No. 2 : inside a fort (19 Sept. 2001). Photo No. 3 : West of Mutianyu on 19 Sept. 2001.

References : {http://www.travelchinaguide.com/china_great_wall/scene/beijing/} {http://www.travelchinaguide.com/china_great_wall/scene/beijing/mutianyu.htm}
 

Wind farms

wf1- Wind farm at Port-Lauragais (France). The Centrale Eolienne d'Avignonet-Lauragais (Haute-Garonne) consists of 10 turbines placed in 2 rows of five turbines (facing East-South-East.Each on 20/2//2004) . Each turbine can produce 800 kW, it has 3 blades and the diameter is 50 m. The wind farm was completed in Nov. 2002. (Further information at http://www.espace-eolien.fr/.)  Photo No. 1 : looking at the wind farm on 20 Feb. 2004. Photo No. 2 : details of turbines in operation during a wind storm on 20 Feb. 2004 (high shutter speed: 1/1,000 sec.).
wf2- Wind farm at Plougras (France). The Centrale Eolienne de Plougras (Côtes d'Armor) was completed in 2003. It consists of 8 towers (Installed capacity : 6 MW) on the Monts d'Arrée. Each tower can produce 750 kW, with a 48 m diameter, type J48, 3 blades (foils) turbine. Photo No. 1 : overall view, looking East,on 25 Feb. 2004. Photo No. 2 : single turbine in operation on 25 Feb. 2004, looking from the foot of the tower.
wf3- Wind farm at Plouarzel (France). The Centrale Eolienne de Ploumoguer (Finistère) was completed in 2003. There are 5 towers. Each turbine can produce 750 kW, and the diameter is 48 m. Photo No. 1 : the 5 tower on 1 Mar. 2004; note that the foreground one was stopped. Photo No. 2 : view on 1 Mar. 2004. Photo No. 3 : View of the stopped turbine on 1 Mar. 2004. Photo No. 4 : View from Pointe de Kermorvan on 19 Apr. 2004. (Information on production at http://suivi-eolien.com/.)
wf4- Wind farm at Plouyé (France) . The Centrale Eolienne de Plouyé was completed in 2002. There is one row of 4 turbines (750 kW each). Photo No. 1: operation on 4 March 2004. Pho
to No. 2 : turbine in operation on 4 March 2004.
wf5- Wind farm at Dinéault (France). The wind farm comprised 5 turbines (300 kW each). Photo No. 1 : operation on 4 March 2004 in the mist, rain and wind. Photo No. 2 :
rotor in operation on 4 March 2004 in the mist, rain and wind.
wf6- Wind farm at Plouarzel, Pays du Léon (France): turbine operation on 1 March 2004
wf7 - Winf arm at Plestan, Cotes d'Armor (France). Six turbines with an installed capacity of 2.3 MW. Photo No. 1 : view on 26 June 2008 of 5 of the 6 turbines. Photo No. 2 : View on 26 June 2008.

wf11- Wind farm at Kenting, Pingtung county (Taiwan). Photo No. 1 : wind farm next to the nuclear power plant No. 3 (2 PWR reactors) on 19 Nov. 2006.

Wind mills
wf21-
Moulin de Moidrey, Baie du Mont Saint Michel (France). Built in 1806 as a tower mill, and restored in 2003, the wind mill was equipped in 1840 with wooden-slatted sails (wings/blades) based upon the French engineer BERTON's system. The Berton system alloes the wooden-slatted sails to be deployed or folded from inside the mill. Photo No. 21: view on 24 June 2008 during operation. Photo No. 22 : details of the deploed wooden-slatted sails, restored with Berton system.

Silted dam, KoorawathaEngineering failures and accidents of hydraulic and coastal structures

Dam failures
F1- St Francis dam (USA 1928). Photo No. 1 : view of remnant part after dam collapse. Completed in 1926 near Los Angeles, the 62.5-m high gravity dam completed in 1926 was equipped with a stepped spillway (width: 67 m). The dam wall failed on 12 March 1928 because of foundation failure. More than 450 people died in the catastrophe. (Ref.: CHANSON 1995, Pergamon, pp. 191-193).   Read more about Dam break wave fluid dynamics ...
F2- New Croton dam stepped spillway (New York NY, USA 1955). Photo No. 1 : in July 1999 (Courtesy of Mrs J. HACKER). Completed in 1905 for the water supply of New York city, the 90.5-m high dam was the world's tallest dam at the time. It was equipped with a stepped spillway (capacity: 1550 m3/s). In October 1955, the spillway was heavily damaged by a water release of about 650 m3/s. (Ref.: CHANSON 1995, Pergamon, pp. 189-191). The spillway was subsequently repaired and it is still used. The stepped cascade appeared in the movie "Daylight" (1996), starring Sylvester Stallone.
F3- Bonshaw timber crib weir (Texas QLD, Australia 1956). Photo No. 1 : after completion - Photo No. 2 & Photo No.3 : after failure (Courtesy of Texas Historical Society, Mr L. BIGNEL & DNR). Completed in May 1953, the first Bonshaw weir was a 3.7-m high timber crib piled structure (144.5-m long), equipped with a stepped overflow (4 0.9-m high steps). During a major flood in 1956, the Bonshaw weir failed. The left abutment was bypassed, and the right abutment and a section of the weir were washed away. In 1958, a new weir was built in steel sheet-piles and concrete.
F4- Malpasset dam (Fréjus, France 1959). Photo No. 1, Photo No. 2 : in Dec. 1981 (taken by H. CHANSON). Completed at the end of 1953, the 102-m high arch dam (double curvature) had a maximum reservoir capacity of about 50 Mm3. On 2 Dec. 1959, the dam wall failed and more than 450 people died in the catastroph. The failure was caused by uplift pressures in the rock foundation (left abutment).   Read more about Dam break wave fluid dynamics ...
F5- Ruhr dams and Dam Buster campain (WWII, 1943).
Mohne dam (Germany).
Completed in 1913, the curved gravity dam was 650 m long and 40 m high, with a storage capcity of 134.5 E+6 m3. The dam hit and badly damaged by the "dam busters" during Word War II on 16/17th May 1943. Almost 1,300 people died in the floods following the dam buster campaign, mostly inmates of a Prisoner of War (POW) camp just below the dam. The dam breach was 23 m high and 77 m long. Photo No. 1 : Mohne dam break damage during the reconstuction in less than 4 months in 1943 (Courtesy of Ruhrverband, Essen, Germany).
Sorpe dam (Germany) Built between 1926 and 1935, the embankment dam was 69 m high and 700 m long. It was built with a concrete core. The reservoir storage capacity is 70.8 E+6 m3 for a catchment area of 100 km2 [extended] (53 km2 [original]). The dam was little damaged by the "dam buster" campaign. Photo No. 1 : Removal of an unexploded 5-tons 1943 bomb during the Sorpe dam refurbishment in 1959 (Courtesy of Ruhrverband, Essen, Germany).
    Read more about Dam break wave fluid dynamics ...

Extreme reservoir siltation
Natural streams and rivers have the ability to scour channel beds and to carry a large amount of solid particles (e.g. CHANSON 1999). When a dam is built across a river, it often acts as a sediment trap. After several years of use, a reservoir might become full of sediments and cease to provide water storage. In practice, the life expectancy of a reservoir is about 50 to 100 years. Extreme reservoir siltation may be defined as the rapid sedimentation process in less than 15 to 20 years.
        More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...
ers1- Koorawatha weir (1911) in December 1997 (Courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. CHANSON) [Ref.: CHANSON (1998), Intl. Jl of Sed. Res.;  CHANSON and JAMES 1998, Research Rep. CE157]. More about Arch dams ... More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...
ers2- Cunningham Creek dam (Harden NSW, Australia 1912) - Dr Chanson inspecting the dam wall and spillway in December 1997 (Courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. Chanson) [Ref.: CHANSON and JAMES 1998, Research Rep. CE157]. More about Arch dams ... More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...
ers3- Korrumbyn Creek dam (Murwillumbah NSW, Australia). Photo No. 1 : View from downstream on 25 April 1997. Photo No. 2 : downstream view of the pipeline intake in April 1997. Photo No. 3 : Korrumbyn Creek downstream of Korrumbyn Creek dam on 18 Aug. 2002. Note the huge bed load material. Photo No. 4 : Fully-silted reservoir with the dam wall in the background, on 17 Aug. 2002. Photo No. 5 : Bed load material in the delta (upstream end) of the fully-silted reservoir on 17 Aug. 2002. Photo No. 6 : dam wall view from the road on 17 Aug. 2002. Before June 2001, the dam wall was not visible from the road, although the abutment is less than 10 m from the bitumen. Major floods in May/June 2001 flattened the sub-tropical rainforest occupying the reservoir. Photo No. 7 : Mount Warning on 18 Aug. 2002. The climb takes about 4 hours.
    Read the history of the dam: download PDF file.
ers4- Nishiyawa reservoir (Japan, 1957) on the Hayagawa river, Yamanashi Prefecture. Fully-silted reservoir of Nishiyawa dam (Japan, 1957) , Japan in November 1998. The river is a tributary of the Fujigawa river, flowing at the foot of Mount Fuji.The Hayagawa is located on the Western slopes of the Fujigawa catchment. The dam characteristics are : H = 39 m, L = 112 m, Res. Cap. = 2.38 Mm3, spillway cap. : 575 m3/s. The reservoir became fully-silted by gravel bed-load in less than 20 years. The reservoir was dredged in the 1990s down to 2-m to resume hydropower operation.

Bridge failures
BF1- Brookbent road bridge, Brisbane (Australia). Photo No. 1 : Damaged Brookbent road (destroyed by flood in 1996), Algester QLD. Looking downsteam in Aug. 1999 - Note bridge abutment on left bank.
 

Rip feeder, Terasa Earthquake related disasters

Earthquake engineering
An earthquake is a violent earth tremor. (References : USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, Various links, Earthquake locator)
ee1- Sanjusangen-do temple (AD 798/last rebuilt 1633), Kyoto, Japan. Earthquake resistant building, constructed on timber piles set in a pit filled with superposed  layers of sand and clay.

Tsunami
A tsunami is a long-period wave generated by ocean bottom motion during an earthquake. (Tsunami is Japanese word meaning "harbour wave". A tsunami is also called seismic sea wave. It is sometimes incorrectly termed "tidal wave" but the process is not related to the tides.) Occasionally a tsunami might be caused by another earth movement (e.g. underwater landslide, volcanic activity). (A related case is the impulse wave generated by rockfalls, landslides, ice falls, glacier breakup or snow avalanches in lakes and man-made reservoirs. Some impulse waves might be induced by earthquake-generated falls.) The tsunami wave length is typically about 200 to 350 km and the tsunami behaves as a shallow water wave, even in deep sea. Although the wave amplitude is moderate in the middle of the ocean (e.g. 0.5 to 1 m), the tsunami wave slows down and the wave height increases near the shoreline, with periods ranging between 20 minutes and several hours typically. The wave runup height might reach several metres above the natural sea level.
Relevant links:   
Pacific Tsunami Warning Center {http://tsunami.gov/} - Tsunami Pacific Museum {http://www.tsunami.org/} - NOAA Tsunami website {http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/} - NOAA {http://www.noaa.org/} - Experimental Study of Tsunami Runup on Dry and Wet Horizontal Coastlines (International Journal of the Tsunami Society, Science of Tsunami Hazards., Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 278-293 )- The 26 December 2004 Tsunami: a Hydraulic Engineering Phenomenon of International Significance. First Comments (Jl La Houille Blanche, 2005, No. 2, pp. 25-32).

ts1- Tsunami warning signs in Japan. Photo No. 1 : Tsunami warning sign post off Takatoyo beach, Enshunanda (Aichi Prefecture)  on 27 March 1999; note the surfers and fishermen drawings. Photo No. 2 : the same old warning sign on 7 November 2008. Photo No. 3 : new tsunami warning sign on Takatoyo beach on 7 November 2008. Photo No. 4 : another type of new tsunami warning sign in Aichi Prefecture on 22 November 2008 along the Enshu coastline. Photo No. 5: another type of new tsunami warning sign at  Mutsure fishing harbour (Aichi Prefecture) on 23 Nov. 2008. Photo No. 6: another new tsunami warning sign at Magome River mouth (Shizuoka Prefecture) on 27 Nov. 2008. Photo No. 7: another new tsunami warning sign at the Tenryu River mouth (Shizuoka Prefecture) on 27 Nov. 2008. [Related : Calculating the threat of tsunami]

Khao Lakts2- Tsunami in Indonesia on 26 December 2004 (Magnitude 9.0)
ts2.1 USGS Earthquake Hazards Program report {http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqinthenews/2004/usslav/}

Preliminary Earthquake Report
U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center
Magnitude     9.0
Date-Time     Sunday, December 26, 2004 at 00:58:50 (UTC) - Coordinated Universal Time (Sunday, December 26, 2004 at 07:58:50 AM local time at epicenter)
Location    3.30N 95.78E
Depth        10.0 kilometers
Region        OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
Reference     250 km (155 miles) SSE of Banda Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia - 320 km (200 miles) W of Medan, Sumatra, Indonesia - 1260 km (780 miles) SSW of BANGKOK, Thailand - 1605 km (1000 miles) NW of JAKARTA, Java, Indonesia
Location Quality     Error estimate: horizontal +/- 9.3 km; depth fixed by location program
Source     USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
Report on 31/12/04 : At least 79,900 people were killed by the earthquake and tsunami in Indonesia. Tsunamis killed at least 24,600 people in Sri Lanka, 10,000 in India, 1,830 in Thailand, 120 in Somalia, 90 in Myanmar, 66 in Malaysia, 46 in Maldives, 10 in Tanzania, 2 in Bangladesh, 1 in Seychelles and 1 in Kenya. About 12,000 people throughout the region are still listed as missing. Tsunamis caused damage in Madagascar and Mauritius and also occurred on Cocos Island and Reunion. The tsunami crossed into the Pacific Ocean and was recorded in New Zealand and along the west coast of South and North America. The earthquake was felt (VIII) at Banda Aceh and (V) at Medan, Sumatra and (II-IV) in parts of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand (Maps 1 & 2). This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and is the largest since the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska earthquake. Map No. 1. Map No. 2.

ts2.2 Preliminary comments on 5/01/2005 by Hubert Chanson to River-List and Coastal_list, and additional comments on 9/2/2005

"Based upon the images and videos that I saw since the 26/12/04, it seems that the tsunami wave runup had different characteristics depending upon the locations and coastline shapes. While it is impossible to generalise, I feel that a few trends emerged.
In Thailand, videos showed an "explosive" process, with tsunami waves breaking near the shore, and waters surging on the dry land. The surging waters advanced on dry land at high speed (> 3 m/s) and the water level increases from zero to more than 3 m (1 storey) in less than 2 minutes. Visually, the surging waters on dry land looked somehow like a dam break wave. In Sri Lanka, there is very little video footage. (I saw 2 videos only). But the photographic evidences suggest that the tsunami waves rushed at a slower pace, than in Thailand, and that most damage resulted from the flooding waters. As an anecdoct, this is possibly the first time that a train is destroyed by a tsunami. In Indonesia, both photographs evidence of damage, satellite photographs of the devastation and a video suggests that the tsunami impact on the coastline was very powerful, possibly explosive, followed by large masses of waters and debris running up on the dry land. One video suggests that the water depths exceeded 3-4 metres at Band Aceh in one place. Note that the tsunami waves reached the coastlines at Banda Aceh around 8:30 am local time, during ebb tide, and the rising tide (tidal range ~ 1.2 m) may have contributed to further runup heights. However a video at Leupung (Tim Palmer, ABC 5/1/05) showed very extensive damage to the hillslopes. I personally experienced only once such devastation. It was in the Reyran valley, downstream of the Malpasset dam. (The 100 m Malpasset arch dam broke in 1959 when the reservoir was full. More than 400 in Frejus and St Rapahel were killed. Forensic investigations showed that the dam break wave was about 40 m high at 340 m downstream of the dam site, and still 7 m high 9 km downstream of the dam site !)� The video footage at Leupung suggest a very significant wave runup height, possibly higher than 15 m". (5/01/2005)

"The hydraulic engineering community has been relatively slow to comprehend the magnitude of the event, to accept its implications and to do something about it. For example: on 26/27/28 Dec. 2004,  most tsunami runup models predicted large runup heights in Bangladesh (eg up to 4-8 m) which never materialised. These same models predicted runup heights of 10 m in Indonesia only. Clearly current expertise is grossly inadequate, and we (academics, researchers and professionals) are to blame !
I feel that we (academics, researchers and professionals)  could ask himself/herself : what have I contributed ? what can I do ? how can I improve current expertise in tsunami modelling or mitigation ? I believe strongly that we have
professional duties and we must face our  responsibility for the present lack of expertise. Herein, "we" means every academic, professional, researcher including you and I ." (9/02/2005)

ts2.3 Video animation of the tsunami propagation prediction by the USGS - Credit NOAA (Quicktime movies). Movie No. 1: preliminary tsunami prediction in Indian Ocean. Movie No. 2: tsunami prediction in Indian Ocean. Movie No. 3 : complete preditions.
USGS mapts2.4 NOOA Compilation of report, data and information {http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/sumatra20041226.html}
ts2.5 Engineering report by the French Atomic Energy Commission {http://www-dase.cea.fr/actu/dossiers_scientifiques/2004-12-26/index.html} (in French).

ts2.6
The December 26, 2004 Earthquake Tsunami Disaster of Indian Ocean by Research Group on The December 26, 2004 Earthquake Tsunami Disaster of Indian Ocean {http://www.drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sumatra/index-e.html}
ts2.7 NASA Earth Observatory photographs of the devastated coatal zones {http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/shownh.php3?img_id=12643} - See also "Other Images for this Event".
ts2.8 Series of video from "Waveofdestruction.org" {http://www.waveofdestruction.org/}
ts2.9 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Comprehensive report {http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Indian_Ocean_earthquake}
ts2.10 Japanese Website on Tsunami Research {http://www.drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sumatra/index-e.html}. Include links on the tsunami {http://www.drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sumatra/index-e.html}, a timetable of the tsunami propagation{http://staff.aist.go.jp/kenji.satake/Sumatra-E.html} and tidal gauge data {http://www.drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sumatra/index-e.html#tn}.
ts2.11 Tsunami propagation and observations on Queensland coast, Australia {http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/publications/p01500aa.pdf/Queensland_EPA_monitors_2004_Asian_Tsunami.pdf}.

ts2.12 Engineering survey at Phuket and report by a Japanese-Thai research team led by DPRI Kyoto {http://www.drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sumatra/thailand/phuket_survey_e.html}
ts2.13 Second
Engineering survey at Phuket and report by a Japanese-Thai research team led by DPRI Kyoto {http://www.drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sumatra/thailand}
ts2.14 Report and photographs on tsunami damage in Indonesia by Dr Jose Borrero, University of Southern California {http://www.usc.edu/dept/tsunamis/2005/tsunamis/041226_indianOcean/sumatra/sumatra.html}
ts2.15 Engineering Report on tsunami runup heights in Indonesia, by the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) Team {http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/namegaya/sumatera/surveylog/eindex.htm}.
ts2.16 Engineering report on tsunami runup heights around Galle, Sri Lanka, by a Japanese team {http://www.drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sumatra/srilanka/galle_survey_e.html}
ts2.17 Engineering report on tsunmai runup heights around Southern Part of Sri Lanka, by Yokohama National University {http://www.drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sumatra/SriLanka_survey_result/srilanka_survey_ynu_e.html}
ts2.18 Measurements made in Indonesia by Russian team field survey - January 20-29, 2005 {http://tsun.sscc.ru/tsulab/20041226.htm} and relevant information

 Read "The 26 December 2004 Tsunami: a Hydraulic Engineering Phenomenon of International Significance. First Comments." Jl La Houille Blanche, 2005, No. 2, pp. 25-32 (ISSN 0018-6368) (Download PDF file).

Photographs
ts2.51 Reunion island (ile de la Reunion) : photographs suggested a small vertical runup. Photo 1 : photograph taken between 13h30 and 14h00 at Port de St Pierre on 26 Dec. 2004 by Axou. Photo 2 : St Pierre beach (Plage de St Pierre) around 13h30 after the first tsunami wave on 26 Dec. 2004 (photograph by Axou); note the marks left by the wave runup on the beach.
ts2.52 Photographs at Khao Lak (or Kaoh Lak), Thailand by John M. THOMPSON {http://www.sonomacountylaw.com/tsunami/index.htm}. Photo No. 1 : seconds before the tsunami waves hit the land, at 10:26 local time (Courtesy of John M. THOMPSON). Photo No. 2 : tsunami waters sweeping through the Seagull Andaman Resort, at 10:28 local time (Courtesy of John M. THOMPSON). Photo No. 3 : waters receeding through the resort at 10:32 local time (Courtesy of John M. THOMPSON). Photo No. 4 : debris during water receeding, around 10:32 local time (Courtesy of John M. THOMPSON).  Photo No. 5  : almost two hours (around 12:00noon) after the first tsunami wave struck (Courtesy of John M. THOMPSON). Photo No. 6 : Large bay where there used to be only a small river (Courtesy of John M. THOMPSON). See also NASA Earth Observatory Images {http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/natural_hazards_v2.php3?img_id=12648} &{http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/natural_hazards_v2.php3?img_id=12677}. Space Imaging pictures {http://www.spaceimaging.com/gallery/tsunami/default.htm#khaolak}.
ts2.53 Photographs on tsunami damage in Indonesia by Dr Jose Borrero, University of Southern California {http://www.usc.edu/dept/tsunamis/2005/tsunamis/041226_indianOcean/sumatra/sumatra.html}
tc2.54 Photographs of tsunmai damage around the Indian Ocean by Dr Jose Borrero {http://www.usc.edu/dept/tsunamis/2005/tsunamis/041226_indianOcean/041226_indianOcean.html}
ts2.55 Photo / Image Database by Kenji Harada, DPRI University of Kyoto  - The December 26, 2004 Earthquake Tsunami Disaster of Indian Ocean {http://www.drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sumatra/photo/?exec=SEARCH&m=s&q=kenji+harada}
ts2.56
Photographs from NASA Earth Observatory {http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/shownh.php3?img_id=12643} - See also "Other Images for this Event".
ts2.57 Photographs of tsunami damage in Western Aceh by Russian team {http://tsun.sscc.ru/tsulab/20041226photos.htm}.


Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake (21 Sept. 1999)
cc1- Failure of building columns at the ground floor in Nantou (Photograph taken on 25-9-99, Courtesy of Ms YANG Soo-Zhen).
cc2- Overhanging roof sections in Nantou (Photograph taken on 25-9-99, Courtesy of Ms YANG Soo-Zhen).
cc3- Complete collapse of a ground floor, in Nantou (Photograph taken on 25-9-99, Courtesy of Ms YANG Soo-Zhen). Note the crushed cars on the left.
cc4- Damage to a school building, in Nantou (Photograph taken on 25-9-99, Courtesy of Ms YANG Soo-Zhen).  Note that the walls connecting the columns (ground floor) had some impact on the  location of the column failure (Comments by Mr W.H. BOYCE).
cc5- Building tilted following failure of the ground floor, in Nantou (Photograph taken on 25-9-99, Courtesy of Ms YANG Soo-Zhen).
Chi Chi earthquakecc6- Building tilted by quake. (Photograph taken on 25-9-99, Courtesy of Ms YANG Soo-Zhen)
cc7- Collapse of the ground floor, in Nantou (Photograph taken on 25-9-99, Courtesy of Ms YANG Soo-Zhen). The column remains are testimony of the  failure.
cc8- Road damage in Nantou (Photograph taken on 25-9-99, Courtesy of Ms YANG Soo-Zhen) - Photo No. 1; Photo No. 2.
cc10 - Waterfall was caused by an upward fault thrust downstream of Shih-Kang Dam.  The Bei-Fung bridge on the left was destroyed because one pier was pushed about 7-m upwards by the fault (Courtesy of the Department of Economics Affairs, Taiwan R.O.C., and Mr Shiang-Kueen HSU). (Basic reference : HWANG 1999)
cc11- Shih-Kang dam on the Ta-Chia river. Destruction of three spillway gates on the right-side of Shih-Kang dam (Courtesy of the Department of Economics Affairs, Taiwan R.O.C., and Mr Shiang-Kueen HSU). The detoured branch of the Cher-Lung-Pu fault ran across the Northern end of the dam. The South side of the fault raised the dam by 9.8 m and the North side by 2-m, and destroyed the Northern spillways and gates of the dam (Basic reference : HWANG 1999, pp. 22-23).
cc12- Failed road span and pier for the last spillway gate at Shih-Kang dam (Courtesy of the Department of Economics Affairs, Taiwan R.O.C., and Mr Shiang-Kueen HSU). (Basic reference : HWANG 1999)
        More information {http://www.rcep.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/main/taiwan/index-E.html}. More links {http://www2.rcep.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~sato/taiwan/index.html}, {http://www.iris.washington.edu/DOCS/taiwan.htm}.
 

Aircrafts and "Flying machines"

Airships
afm1- Airship at Archerfield, Brisbane. Holden Airship at Archerfield on 19 Oct. 2006, around 3:00pm before a storm coming from the South (dark clouds in backgrounds). Note the digital TV screen (21.m by 9.1 m) on the left side (black screen off). The airship model is a A-170 Lightship filled with 5 ML of Helium. The airship is 54.3 m long and 16.8 m hig.Cruise Speed 74 km/h. Maximum Speed 84 km/h. Power: Twin Lycoming IO-360-B1G6 with constant-speed variable-pitch reversible propellers. Max rate of climb: 425 metres per minute. Max rate of descent: 485 metres per minute.
Photo No 1 :
view on 19 Oct. 2006. Photo No. 2 : view on 19 Oct. 2006. Photo No. 3 : side view on 19 Oct. 2006; note the television screen.

Helicopters
afm11- Seahawk of the Taiwanese Navy in Hualien. Photo No. 1 : view from Hualien pebble beach on 22 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 2 :
view from Hualien pebble beach on 22 Nov. 2006.

"Flying machines"
afm21- Motorised parachute (Aerochute) off La Ville Pichard, Pleneuf-Val-Andre on Sun. 11 Apr. 2004 around 15:00. Photo No. 1: Take off.
afm22- Delta wing (Hand glider)
in Pleneuf-Val-Andre on Sun. 11 Apr. 2004 around 15:00. Photo No. 1 : Hand glider above Le Verdelet. Photo No. 2 : the same hand glider above La Ville Pichard.
afm23- Kite on the
Val-Andre beach in April 2004. Photo No. 1: kite above the beach at low tide.

Ships and sailing boats
safm1- Trimaran Stalaven, skipped by Pascal QUINTIN. Length: 15.2 m, width: 14.0 m, mast: 23.8 m high, sailing surface: 125 m2 (285 m2 with spinnaker). Photo No. 1 : Trimaran Stalaven off Plage du Val André, France on 11 Oct. 2008 at high tide. Photo No. 2 :
Trimaran Stalaven behind la Grande Jaune off Plage du Val André, France on 11 Oct. 2008 at high tide. Photo No. 3 : Trimaran Stalaven in front of Le Verdelet off Plage du Val André, France on 11 Oct. 2008 at high tide. Photo No. 4 : Trimaran Stalaven in front of Port de Piegu, Le Val André, France on 11 Oct. 2008 at high tide. Photo No. 5 : Trimaran Stalaven in front of Le Verdelet off Plage du Val André, France on 11 Oct. 2008 at high tide. Photo No. 6 : Trimaran Stalaven off Plage du Val André, France on 11 Oct. 2008 at high tide.
   More on the Baie de Saint Brieuc, and the Atlantic Wall fortifications.
safm2- La Pauline, a former pilot ship for the Port de Dahouet. Photo No. 1 : La Pauline
off Plage du Val André, France on 11 Oct. 2008 at high tide. Photo No. 2 : La Pauline off Plage du Val André, France on 11 Oct. 2008 at high tide.

Cascades, water staircases and fountains (cascades, fontaines, bassin)

C1 - Roman Perge (Turkey) - Photo No. 1 : Water channel from the Northern monumental Nymphaeum to the city gate and Hellenistic towers, looking downstream (2nd century AD) (Courtesy of M. MENGEL and D. MURPHY, Oct. 1997).
C2- Angkor, Cambodia - Photo No. 1 : moat at Bantay-Srei in Dec. 2001 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). Photo No. 2 : Neak-Pean, square basin in Dec. 2001 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). Photo No. 3 : human face of the Gange river at Neak-Oean in Dec. 2001 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON).
C3- La Grande Cascade de Rueil (France, 1638) - Photo No. 1 : Gravure of the cascade (Courtesy of the Musée de l'Histoire de Rueil-Malmaison, Mrs KALENITCHENKO and Mrs D. HELOT-LÉCROART).
The château of Rueil  was built and designed by Jacques LEMERCIER in 1625. Cardinal de Richelieu bought the château in 1631. The complete garden included a Great Cascade (~ 30 steps) designed by Thomas FRANCINI and completed around 1638 (HELOT-LÉCROART 1985). The cascade was at the end of the Grande Allée (PLUMPTRE 1993). MOSSER and TEYSSOT (1991) suggested that Rueil's cascade and gardens were inspired by Frascati (Villa Aldobrandini ?). It is believed that the Cascade of Rueil inspirated the cascades of Versailles, St-Cloud and Sceaux (CHANSON 1998). The cascade was replaced by a green lawn in 1720. The 17-th century formal garden does not exist any longer. Imperatrice Joséphine stayed in Rueil and orderd a remodelling of the park.
Note : Thomas FRANCINI was an Italian landscape architect. He went to France working for King Henri IV with his brothers Alexandre and Camille. He was "Superintendant of the Waters and Fountains of France" under Henri IV. His son François FRANCINE changed the family name to FRANCINE. François and his brother Pierre continued the work of their father Thomas, Pierre working as deputy of François.
C4- Bassin de Latone, Château de Versailles (France, 1670) - Photo No. 1 : Grandes eaux in June 1998
Designed in 1670 by G. MARSY (French sculptor, 1625-1681), the statue of Latone (mother of the Gods  Apollon and Diane) is in marble. The fountain and statue represents Latone with her children. While drinking, she was insulted by the peasants of Lycie : she asked Jupiter to punish the peasants and to transform them in aquatic animals. The lower levels of the fountain represent some of the aquatic animals. The Bassin de Latone is located in the Jardin du Château de Versailles, between the Chateau and the Grand Canal.
C5 - Bosquet des Rocailles, Château de Versailles (France, 1683) - Photo No. 1 : panoramic view. Photo No. 2 : water jets and cascading waters. Photo No. 3 : details (Photographs taken during the Grandes Eaux on 20 June 1998).
Le Bosquet des Rocailles (or Bosquet de la Salle de Bal) was built between 1680 and 1683 by J. MANSART in the gardens of the Chateau de Versailles (France). The sculptures were by Pierre LEGROS (1629-1714) and Benoît MASSOU (1627-1684). The cascade comprises : 5 8-steps fountains, 8 7-steps fountains, and 4 4-steps fountains. The Bosquet itself was designed by LENOTRE in 1680. The scene was modified in 1690 and flowers were introduced in 1691.
C6-  L'escalier d'eau des jardins du Château du Touvet, Le Touvet (Isère, France, 1770) - Photo No. 1 : looking downstream at the water staircase with the Belledonne mountains in background (Courtesy of Mr O de Quinsonas). Photo No. 2 : detail of the water staircase (Courtesy of Mr F. BOTTON). Photo No. 3 :  General view of the water staircases in 2002 (copyrights Jardins du Touvet). Photo No. 4 : Upper water staircases in 2002 (copyrights Jardins du Touvet).
The first "château" was built during the 13-th century. The present chateau was built in 15th century. Between 1753 and 1770, the Comte Pierre de MARCIEU re-designed the garden, including a new water staircase. The staircase is very pretty. The staircase is divided in 5 successive series of steps (pooled steps with rounded crest). From the top to the bottom :  a steep cascade (> 8 steps), a second steep cascade (9 steps), followed by a flat series of drops (6 steps, slope ~ 6 deg.), a steep cascade (10 steps, slope ~ 27 deg.), and another steep cascade (8 steps). Visit the website of the Château du Touvet : {http://www.touvet.com/}.
C7 - Franklin D. Roosevelt memorial (Washington DC, USA) - Photo No. 1 : stepped cascade in June 1998.
C8- Hong Kong Park (Hong Kong) - Photo No. 1 : water staircase in Sept. 1994.
C9- Jardins du Trocadero, Paris, France (in Aug. 1996). Photo No. 1 : water jets and Eiffel tower in background (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON). Photo No. 2 : Water cannons in action, with Eiffel tower in background (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON).
C10- Artifical cascade at the bottom of the cable car at Mutianyu Great Wall (China) on 19 Sept. 2001.
C11- Non Hoi Park, Toyohashi (Japan) - Artifical staircase cascade on 13 Oct. 2001. Waters jets and cascades on 13 Oct. 2001.
C12- Step-pooled cascade in the Floral Park at Hama-matsu, Japan on 9 March 1999. It acts as a pool-stepped spillway of an aesthetic pond. The photograph was taken in winter when the cascade was dry.
C13- Victoria Point Cascades on 16 Jan. 2003, Water fountain with slate arrangement, next to Eprapah Environmental park.
C14- Hualien city fountain, East coast of Taiwan. Photo No. 1 : fountain on 23 Nov. 2006. Photo No. 2 : details of the water jets and splashing on 23 Nov. 2006 (shutter speed: 1/80 s).

    Learn more about the Formal Water Garden ....        Natural cascades and waterfalls : Click Here.    Artifical river system, fishway and fish pas : Click Here.
 

Research experiments

e1- Stepped spillway and chute flow
    Flat stepped channel flow : Photo No. 1 : nappe flow down a 3.4 degree slope (h=0.14 m) - flow from bottom to top [Ref.: CHANSON & TOOMBES 1998, ICMF'98]; Photo No. 2 : transition flow down a 3.4 degree slope (h=0.07 m) for dc/h=1.2, looking downstream (April 2000).  Read "Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in a Stepped Storm Waterway: an Experimental Study." Jl of Irrigation and Drainage Engrg., ASCE, 2002, Vol. 128, No. 5, pp. 305-315 (Download PDF File).
    Skimming flow down a 50 degree slope (h=20mm). The inception point of air entrainment is clearly visible.
            More Photographs of stepped chute flows ...
e2- Air entrainment at a vertical supported jet
    Individual bubble entrainment at a vertical supported jet [Ref.: CUMMINGS & CHANSON 1999]. Low-speed air bubble entraiment. Elongated air cavity formation & entrainment of bubbles. Cavity and scaling located 45-mm towards the camera from the jet centre line. Jet impact flow conditions : V = 1.20 m/s, Tu = 1.08 %, d = 8.0 mm, Lj = 34mm - Video shutter speed : 1.0 ms; Frame interval : 20 ms.
    Strong air entrainment : V1 = 6.14 m/s, x1 = 0.090 m, probe position : x-x1 = 0.10 m [Ref.: BRATTBERG and CHANSON 1998].
            More on Air entrainment in the developing flow region of two-dimensional plunging jets ...
e3-  Air bubble entrainment at a circular vertical plunging jets
Experiments at the University of Queensland (H. CHANSON 1998), flow from top to bottom (Circular jet, V1 = 3.3 m/s, do = 25 mm) with freshwater
Experiments at Toyohashi University of Technology with freshwater : Photo No. 1 : air entrainment at a 12.5 mm diameter plunging jet (V1 = 2 m/s). Photo No. 2 : air entrainment at a 6.83 mm diameter jet (V1 = 2.1 m/s).
Experiments at Toyohashi University of Technology with seawater : Photo No. 1 : air bubble entrainment at a 12.5 mm diameter plunging jet (x1 = 0.05 m, V1 = 2.5 m/s). Photo No. 2 : same flow conditions, high shutter speed (1/1,000 s). Photo No. 3 : seawater collection on 25 Oct. 2001. Photo No. 4 : seawater collection and checking on 25 Oct. 2001.
            Read "Bubble Entrainment and Dispersion in Plunging Jet Flows: Freshwater versus Seawater".

            More on Acoustic characteristics of air entrainment at plunging jet ...
e5- Unsteady orifice experiment (two-dimensional orifice 70-mm*750-mm) : initial "bursting" flow, free-falling nappe (front view, side view), Toyohashi University of Technology [Ref.: CHANSON et al. 2002, Jl of Hyd. Res.]
e6- Effect of air bubble entrainment by plunging breakers on long-period waves. Photo No. 1, Photo No. 2: views of the unsteady plunging jet. Underwater views shorty after impingement : t = 0.3 sec., t = 0.4 sec., t = 0.5 sec., t = 0.7 sec..Advancing undular bore 10-m downstream of plunging jet (propagation from left to right).
e7- Undular hydraulic jump looking downstream (Fr=1.2) and sideview (Fr=1.6) (H. CHANSON Apr. 1993)
e8- Circular hydraulic jump in a sink (Courtesy of Ph. BELLEUDY)
e9- Self-aeration on spillway chutes. Photo No. 1 : self-aeration at Chinchilla weir on 8 Nov. 1997 during low overflow (Weir height: 14 m, Crest length: 410m, Spillway capacity: 850 m3/s. More information : CHANSON, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999, pp. 417-421 & 316.) The point of inception is visible near the upstream end of the chute. Note the light brown colour of the flow, caused by the mixing of air bubbles and sediment in the overflow.
            More about Air entrainment on chute spillways ...
e10- Double-tip and single-tip conductivity (resistivity) probes developed at the University of Queensland (CHANSON 1997). The 2-tip probe sensor has a 25 micron meter diamter. The single-tip probe sensore has a 0.35-mm diameter.  (Download a report as PDF files : Part 1 and Part 2) [Ref.: CHANSON 2002, Jl Hyd. Engrg.]
e11- Spillway aeration device model. Photo No. 1 : 1/15 scale model of the Clyde dam spillway aeration device; flow conditions : Fr = 6.5, V=5.8 m/s, d =85 mm.
            More about spillway aeration devices ...  Read "A Study of Air Entrainment and Aeration Devices on a Spillway Model".
e12- Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory (Taiwan) - Photo No. 1 : wave breaking on submerged breakwater blocks in the 300-m long, 5-m deep canal (25 Sept. 2001).

e4- Air entrainment in a Roman dropshaft model (H. CHANSON 1998), flow from the top left to the right. Note the downstream channel and the deep shaft. The geometry is well-suited to maximise air bubble entrainment and gas transfer in the shaft (e.g. re-oxygenation). [Ref.: CHANSON 2000, Am Jl Archaeology, CHANSON 2002, Jl of Hyd. Res.]
e13- Dropshaft hydraulics
Roman dropshaft in operation : Recret model (Aug. 1998) [Ref.:  CHANSON 2000, Am Jl Archaeology, CHANSON 2002, Jl of Hyd. Res.]

    Regime R1 : the usual operation mode in Roman aqueduct (photo dc/h = 0.06);  Regime R2 : high risks of erosion and damage at the intake of downstream conduit (photo dc/h = 0.12); Regime R3 : at large flow rates, usual operation in modern sewer dropshaft (photo dc/h = 0.22)
    Roman dropshaft in operation : Valdepuentes model (90-degree angled outlet) (Aug. 1999) [Ref.:  CHANSON 2000, Am Jl Archaeology, CHANSON 2002, Jl of Hyd. Res.]
    Full scale hydraulic model of Roman dropshaft. Drop in invert elevation: 1.7 m, pool depth: 1 m, shaft dimensions: 0.75 m by 0.76 m, flow rates: 5 to 70 L/s (CHANSON 2004, Jl Irrigation & Drainage Engrg.). Regime R1 : photograph for Q = 7.6 L/s (July 2002); Regime R3 : photograph for Q = 67 L/s (Aug. 2002).
e14- Flow past an orifice and a Venturi. Flow visualisation with a smoke generator at the University of Queensland. Photo No. 1: general view of the smoke general with the orifice and Venturi models inside. Photo No. 2: turbulent flow visualisation; flow from bottom to top, with the orifice model on the left and Venturi model on the right (shutter speed: 1/80 s). Photo No. 3: flow from bottom to top (shutter speed: 1/6 s). Photo No.4: turbulent flow motion (shutter speed: 1/80s); note the flow separation downstream of the orifice (left, top).

Teaching experiments and projects

te1- Hele-Shaw cell experiments
(1) Flow past a Rankine body, where the green dye injected at the source does not mix with the red dye injected in the uniform flow (flow from left to rigth). (2) Flow past a thick rounded plate perpendicular to the flow (flow from right to left). (3) Flow past a thick rounded foil with 15% camber perpendicular to the flow (flow from right to left)
(4) CIVL4160 Advanced Fluid Mechanics Student Group 1 looking at Hele-Shaw cell apparatus with dye injection, model M3 (15% camber) with zero angle of incidence on 26/04/2005

te2- Wind tunnel projects

2003 CIVL4160 wind tunnel projects: (1) Inflow conditions : screens & grids and carpet floor. (2) Model M1 : straight building with rounded edge and flat roof. Photo No. 1: model standing in the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. (3) Model M2 : circular arc building with 5% camber: Photo No. 1 : model being installed on the turning table. (4) Model M3 : circular arc building with 15% camber. Photo No. 1 : models M2 and M3 side by side.
2005 CIVL4160 wind tunnel projects: (Photo No. 1) Group 2 students in wind tunnel installing the hot-wire upstream of the building model M3 on 27/04/2005. Photo No. 3 : Group 3 students in wind tunnel with building model M2 in background on 28/04/2005. Photo No. 4 : Group 4 students checking pressure tappings on building model M1 on 29/04/2005.
2006 CIVL4160 Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Project (Cyclonic Wind Loads on Buildings). Photo No. 1 : Group 1 student porject with building model M3; installation of the hotwire anemometer upstream of the building model. Photo No. 2 : Group 2 students in the wind tunnel. Photo No. 3 : Group 3 students installing the hot wire upstream of building model M2. Photo No. 4 : Group 4 students in the control room of the wind tunnel.
2007 CIVL4160/7160
Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Project (Cyclonic Wind Loads on Buildings). Photo 1.1 : Installation of the hot-wire probe above the rought turbulent boundary layer experiment (Group 1). Photo 1.2 : Group 1 students preparing the building model M3 in hte wind tunnel, looking downstream at the turn table and building model. Photo 2.1 : Group 2 students inspecting the rough turbulent boundary layer experimental setup. Photo 2.2 : Hot-wire probe above the rough boundary layer experiment with some Group 2 students in the control room in the background. Photo 3.1 : Group 3 students inspecting the wind tunnel equipment and instrumentation. Photo 3.2 : Rough boundary layer experiment setup with wind direction from right ro left (Group 3). Photo 4.1 : Group 4 students preparing the rough boundary layer experiment. Photo 4.2 : Final instructions before the start of the experiment (Group 4). Photo 5.1 : Group 5 student testing the wind flow (V ~ 16 m/s) in the wind tunnel (flow direction from right to left). Photo 5.2 : Group 5 students setting up the rough turbulent boundary layer experiment. Photo 6.1 : Group 6 students in the wind tunnel control room. Photo 6.2 : Groud 6 students conducting hot-wire measurements from the wind tunel control room.
2013 CIVL4160/7160 Wind tunnel project.  Photo No. 2013.1: Group No. 1 students using in the wind tunnel facility. Photo No. 2013.2: Group No. 2 students using in the wind tunnel facility. Photo No. 2013.3: Group No. 3 students using in the wind tunnel facility. Photo No. 2013.4: Group No. 4 students using in the wind tunnel facility. Photo No. 2013.5: Group No. 5 students using in the wind tunnel facility. Photo No. 2013.6: Group No. 6 students using in the wind tunnel facility.

Student field works and studies

ft1- Hydrodynamics, water quality and biology in a small estuary
(1) Field works on Friday 4 April 2003
Photo No. 11 : Group 1 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 7:30am. Photo No. 12 : Group 1 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 12:00noon. Photo No. 13 : Group 2 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 8:30am. Photo No. 14 : Group 2 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 2:30pm. Photo No. 15 : ADV velocimeter and YSI probe mounted 50 cm beneath the free-surface on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 10:00am. Photo No. 16 : Group 3 on Fri 4 April 2003 around 11:00am. Photo No. 17 : Group 3 on Fri 4 Apr 2003.  Photo No. 18 : Group 4 on Fri 4 April 2003 at 7:02am. Photo No. 19 : Group 4 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 10:30am. Photo No. 20 : Qld EPA boat conducting a vertical profile at Site 3 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 11:00am. Photo No. 21 : Koala next to Site 1 on Fri 4 Apr 2003 around 5:00pm. Photo No. 50 : Students and EPA boat at Site 2 around the middle of the day (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 51 : water quality observations at Site 2 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 52 : bird watching at Site 2 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 53 : fish dip netting at Site 2 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 54 : dissolved oxygen testing at Site 2 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2). Photo No. 55 : measurement preparation on the bank (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 2).  Photo No. 60 : Students at Site 1 discussing with Waterwatch people (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 3). Photo No. 61 : surface slick at Site 3 durign the flood flow (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 3). Photo No. 62 : Low tide at Site 3, note bank erosion (right bank) (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 3). Photo No. 63 : Site 3 students during the afternoon (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 3). Photo No. 70 : Upstream snag at Site 4 (Platypus pool) (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4). Photo No. 71 : Group work at Site 4 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4). Photo No. 72 : student fishing at Site 4 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4). Photo No. 73 : fishing at Site 4 in front of ECCLA people (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4). Photo No. 74 : students at Site 4 (Courtesy of CIVL4140 Student Group 4).
(2) Field works on Thursday 2 September 2004
Site 1 : Photo No. 1.1 :Site 1 students around 7:15 am. Photo No. 1.2 : Site 1 around 12:00 noon at high tide. Photo No. 1.3 : Site 1 activity around 6:30am. Site 2 : Photo No. 2.1 : Site 2 students around 7:15 am. Photo No. 2.2 : Site 2 activties around 11:00 am. Site 3 : Photo No. 3.1 : Site 3 student activity around 6:45 am. Photo No. 3.2 : Site around 16:30, with the EPA taking physico-chemical readings mid-stream. Photo No. 3.3 : students around 13:00. Wildlife : Photo No. 1 : Female koala next to Site 1 on 2 September 2004 around 8:40am. Overseas visitors: Photo No.1  : Professor Shin-ichi AOKI, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan)

ft2- Sediment processes and reservoir sedimentation
(1) Field study
on 4 September 2002
Korrumbyn Creek dam (Murwillumbah NSW, Australia 1917). Photo No. 1 : View from downstream on 25 April 1997. Photo No. 2 : downstream view of the pipeline intake in April 1997. Photo No. 3 : Korrumbyn Creek downstream of Korrumbyn Creek dam on 18 Aug. 2002. Note the huge bed load material. Photo No. 4 : Fully-silted reservoir with the dam wall in the background, on 17 Aug. 2002. Photo No. 5 : Bed load material in the delta (upstream end) of the fully-silted reservoir on 17 Aug. 2002. Photo No. 6 : dam wall view from the road on 17 Aug. 2002. Before June 2001, the dam wall was not visible from the road, although the abutment is less than 10 m from the bitumen. Major floods in May/June 2001 flattened the sub-tropical rainforest occupying the reservoir. Photo No. 7 : Mount Warning on 18 Aug. 2002. The climb takes about 4 hours.
  Read the history of the dam: download PDF file. More about Extreme reservoir siltation ...
Field study:  Photo No. 8 : Korrumbyn Creek, looking downstrream during student field trip on 4 Sept. 2002. Photo No. 9 : Korrumbyn Creek dam during student field trip on 4 Sept. 2002. Photo No. 10 : Korrumbyn Creek reservoir, looking upstream during student field trip on 4 Sept. 2002.

ft3- Flood plain modelling and culvert design
(1) Field study on 13 May 2002
Photo No. 1 : Inlet of a MEL culvert along Norman Creek underneath Ridge Street, Brisbane (QLD, Australia). Note the handrail along the bicycle/footpath passing in one cell. MEL culvert No. MEL-C-3 (CHANSON 1999, pp. 421-430). Design discharge : 220 m3/s, 7 cells of 2-m width each. View of the inlet during a field trip with students in Aug. 2000. Culvert outlet during field trip with students in Aug. 2001 (Courtesy of Mr A.K. ABDULLAH SANI). Outlet viewed from downstream on 13 May 2002 (Courtesy of C. HINTON). Inlet operationOutlet operation on 31 Dec. 2001 after a rainstorm (Q ~ 60-70 m3/s). Approach flood plain , Inlet and Downstream flood plain during CIVL4510 student survey on 13 May 2002.
Photo No. 2 : Outlet and barrel of a MEL waterway along Norman Creek, under the South-East freeway and parallel to Ridge St (Brisbane QLD, Australia). Looking upstream. MEL waterway No. MEL-W-1 (CHANSON 1999, pp. 421-430). Design discharge : 200 m3/s, Barrel width : 10 m. Outlet operation (view from downstream) on 31 Dec. 2001 after a rainstorm (Q ~ 60-70 m3/s). Field trip by CIVL4510 students (where are they?) on 13 May 2002. Photo No. 24: MEL water MEL-W-1 barrel in operation on 7 Nov. 2004, looking downstream; note the standing wave flow; Photo No. 25: inlet operation, view from right bank (MEL waterway (MEL-W-1) on 7 Nov. 2004); Photo No. 26: outlet operation, looking upstream (MEL waterway (MEL-W-1) on 7 Nov. 2004).

Photo No. 4 : MEL culvert No. MEL-C-2 (CHANSON 1999, pp. 421-430). Design discharge : 220 m3/s. Located along Norman Creek underneath SE Freeway parallel to Birdwood St, Brisbane (Australia). Inlet, looking from the left bank on 13 May 2002.
Photo No. 5 : MEL culvert No. MEL-C-X2 (CHANSON 1999), Ekibin Park, on Norman Creek. Design discharge : 220 m3/s. Built in 1971. Located underneath South-East Freeway. Inlet survey during Field survey CIVL4510 on Mon 13 May 2002.
Photo No. 6 : MEL culvert No. MEL-C-4 (CHANSON 1999). Design discharge : ~220 m3/s. MEL culvert beneath the Gateway motorway (Brisbane, Australia). Photo No. 6a : inlet on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip. Photo No. 6b : inlet wingwall on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip.
Photo No. 7 : MEL culvert No. MEL-C-5 (CHANSON 1999). Design discharge : ~100 m3/s. MEL culvert beneath the Gateway motorway (Brisbane, Australia). Photo No. 7a : inlet on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip. Photo No. 7b : students in inlet channel on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip. Photo No. 7c : students at the dowsntream end of the barrel on 11 Sept. 2002 during CIVL3140 student field trip.
(2) Field works
on 11 April 2005
Group 1 : students surveying the Birdwood St MEL culvert inlet, looking upstream from the barrel. Group 2 : student discussion in the Ekibin MEL culvert inlet. Group 3 : survey preparation, downstream of the Ekibin MEL culvert outlet. Group 4 : field work preparation. Group 5 : survey of the MEL waterway beneath the SE freeway. Group 6 : survey of the Ridge St MEL culvert inlet. Group 8 : flood plain survey downstream of Juliette St. Group 9 : student survey of Cornwall St culvert.

Read more on "Enhancing Students' Motivation in the Undergraduate Teaching of Hydraulic Engineering: the Role of Field Works" (2004 ASCE Jl of Prof. Issues in Eng. Educ. and Practice, Vol. 130, No. 4, pp. 259-268. "Should Field Works Be Compulsory in Hydraulic Engineering Courses ?" IAHR Newsletter, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 27-30.

Lecture

L1-  Workshop on Flow Characteristics around Hydraulic Structures and River Environment, Nihon University, Tokyo (Nov. 1998) - Dr CHANSON showing the world's oldest stepped spillway (BC 1,300) during the workshop.

L2- International Workshop on State of the Art in Hydraulic Engineering, Bari, Italy, Feb. 2004. Photo No. 1: lecture by Hubert CHANSON on tidal bores on 20 Feb. 2004. Photo No. 2 : lecture on field work at Eprapah Creek by Hubert CHANSON on 19 Feb. 2004. Photo No. 3 : some participants of the workshop on 17 Feb. 2004.

P1- Poster presentation on "Study of Extreme Reservoir Siltation in Australia",  Proc. Water 99 Joint Congress, 25th Hydroogy & Water Res. Symp. and 2nd Intl Conf. Water Res. & Environ. Research, Brisbane, Australia.
 

Learn more about ... (Resources)

History of arch dams ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/arch_dam.html}
Timber crib weirs ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/tim_weir.html}
The steel dams ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/steel_da.html}
The tidal bore of the Seine river ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/mascaret.html}
Engineering failures ...
Extreme reservoir siltation ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/res_silt.html}
Sabo check dams ...    {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/sabo.html}

Air entrainment on chute and stepped spillways ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/self_aer.html}
Air entraiment at a circular plunging jet: physical and acoustic characteristics - Internet Database {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/bubble/}
Hydraulics of rubber dams ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/rubber.html}
Current expertise and experience on stepped channel flows {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/dpri/topic_2.html}
Embankment overflow stepped spillways: earth dam spillways with precast concrete blocks {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/over_st.html}
Spillway Aeration Devices to prevent Cavitation Damage in high-head chutes {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/aer_dev.html}

Minimum Energy Loss culverts and bridge waterways ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/mel_culv.html}
The Minimum Energy Loss (MEL) weir design: an overflow earthfill embankment dam {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/mel_weir.html}

The Formal Water Garden .... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/wat_gard.html}
Whirlpools ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/whirlpl.html}
 

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About Professor Hubert CHANSON
Hubert CHANSON is a Professor in Civil Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Fluid Mechanics at the University of Queensland, Australia. His research interests include design of hydraulic structures, experimental investigations of two-phase flows, applied hydrodynamics, hydraulic engineering, water quality modelling, environmental fluid mechanics, estuarine processes and natural resources. He has been an active consultant for both governmental agencies and private organisations. His publication record includes over 620 international refereed papers and his work was cited over 3,700 times (WoS) to 6,300 times (Google Scholar) since 1990. Hubert Chanson is the author of several books : "Hydraulic Design of Stepped Cascades, Channels, Weirs and Spillways" (Pergamon, 1995), "Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Shear Flows" (Academic Press, 1997), "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow : An Introduction" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1st edition 1999, 2nd editon 2004), "The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and Spillways" (Balkema, 2001), "Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004), "Applied Hydrodynamics: an Introduction of Ideal and Real Fluid Flows" (CRC Press, 2009), and "Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: Theory And Observations" (World Scientific, 2011). He co-authored two further books "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists" (IPC Press, 2002) and "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists. Student Edition" (IPC, 2006). His textbook "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction" has already been translated into Spanish (McGraw-Hill Interamericana) and Chinese (Hydrology Bureau of Yellow River Conservancy Committee), and the second edition was published in 2004. In 2003, the IAHR presented him with the 13th Arthur Ippen Award for outstanding achievements in hydraulic engineering. The American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental and Water Resources Institute (ASCE-EWRI) presented him with the 2004 award for the Best Practice paper in the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ("Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in Stepped Storm Waterway" by Chanson and Toombes 2002). Hubert Chanson edited further several books : "Fluvial, Environmental and Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering" (Mossa, Yasuda & Chanson 2004, Balkema), "Hydraulics. The Next Wave" (Chanson & Macintosh 2004, Engineers Australia), "Hydraulic Structures: a Challenge to Engineers and Researchers" (Matos & Chanson 2006, The University of Queensland), "Experiences and Challenges in Sewers: Measurements and Hydrodynamics" (Larrate & Chanson 2008, The University of Queensland), "Hydraulic Structures: Useful Water Harvesting Systems or Relics?" (Janssen & Chanson 2010, The University of Queensland), "Balance and Uncertainty: Water in a Changing World" (Valentine et al. 2011, Engineers Australia). He chaired the Organisation of the 34th IAHR World Congress held in Brisbane, Australia between 26 June and 1 July 2011. He chairs the Scientific Committee of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures to be held in Brisbane in June 2014.
 His Internet home page is http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans. He also developed a gallery of photographs website {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html} that received more than 2,000 hits per month since inception.

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Applied HydrodynamicsEnvironmental hydraulics of open channel flowThe Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and SpillwaysThe Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an IntroductionApplied HydrodynamicsAir bubble entrainment in turbulent shear flowsHydraulic design of stepped cascades, channels, weirs and spillways  McGraw-Hill Interamericana 13th Ippen award (IAHR)Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an Introduction Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists