Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: Theory and Observations
CHANSON, H. (2011). "Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: Theory and Observations." World Scientific, Singapore, 220 pages (ISBN: 978-981-4335-41-6 / 981-4335-41-X)
http://www.worldscibooks.com/engineering/8035.html

Author's website : http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/
Publisher's website : http://www.worldscibooks.com/

Order form and flyer: {http://www.worldscibooks.com/engineering/8035.html}
Table of Contents: {at UQespace}

Presentation

Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: what's all about it? A tidal bore is a surge of waters propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising and the flood tide rushes into a funnel shaped river mouth. The bore forms during the spring tides when the tidal range exceeds 4 to 6 m and the rising tide waters are confined to the narrow funnelled estuary. It is estimated worldwide that over 400 estuaries are affected by a tidal bore, on all continents but Antarctica. A bore is a discontinuity of the water depth and it represents a hydrodynamic shock. The tidal bores have a significant impact on the environmental system and the ecology of the river mouth. Recent studies demonstrated in particular the significant impact of small tidal bores and of non-breaking undular surges on natural channels. Surprisingly, the tidal bore remains a challenging research topic to theoreticians, and many hydrodynamic features remain unexplained.

The existence of a tidal bore is based upon a fragile hydrodynamic balance between the tidal flow range, the freshwater river flow conditions and the channel bathymetry. Some simple theoretical considerations show that this balance may be too easily disturbed by changes in boundary conditions and freshwater inflow. For examples, a number of tidal bores disappeared because of river training, dredging and damming. Man-made interventions led to the loss of several bores with often adverse impacts onto the eco-system: e.g., the mascaret of the Seine River (France) no longer exists after extensive training works and dredging; the Colorado River bore (Mexico) is drastically smaller after dredging. Although the fluvial traffic gained in safety in some case, the ecology of estuarine zones were adversely affected. The tidal bores of the Colorado (Mexico), Couesnon (France) and Petitcodiac (Canada) Rivers almost disappeared after construction of upstream barrage(s). At Petitcodiac, this yielded the elimination of several native fish species. The proposed construction of the Severn Barrage in UK is a major threat to one of the best documented tidal bores: the Severn River bore.

Herein the author aims to share his enthusiasm and passion for the tidal bores by documenting numerous tidal bores on our Planet. More than 160 photographs are presented and documented. After a brief introduction, some basic theoretical considerations are developed (section 2). Then the major tidal bores in our Planet's continents are introduced (section 3). The rumble noise of tidal bores is discussed (section 4). The turbulence and turbulent mixing induced by a tidal bore are documented (section 5) before the interactions between tidal bores and mankind are discussed (section 6). The book is supported by several appendices including a reliable reference list of tidal bores, with all information on each tidal bore double-checked by independent, reliable reports (App. A), a technical appendix on undular tidal bores (App. B), some comments of tidal bore surfers (App. C) and a glossary of technical terms (App. D), followed by a list of bibliographic, Internet and audio-visual references.

This book aims to bridge the gap between the general knowledge and scientific expertise on tidal bores. The general readership would be interested to read first the sections 1, 3, 4 and 6, while the sections 2 and 5 would provide these readers with more scientific data. The scientific readership would start first with the sections 1, 2, 4, and 5, and these readers would find some relevant illustrations the section 3 and some discussion in section 6.

Corrections & Errata



Updates

Basic equations in one dimension - Application of the momentum equation to tidal bores (pp. 10-13 &131)
    Bibliographic reference
    CHANSON, H. (2013). "Tidal Bore Research: Field Works, Physical Modeling, CFD & More." Proc. 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China, 8-13 Sept., WANG Z., LEE, J.H.W., GAO, J., and CAO S. Editors, Invited lecture, Paper A12210, 11 pages (ISBN 978-7-302-33544-3). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
    CHANSON, H. (2012). "Momentum Considerations in Hydraulic Jumps and Bores." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 138, No. 4, pp. 382-385 (DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000409) (ISSN 0733-9437). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)

Turbulence and mixing in tidal bores (pp. 105-114)
    Bibliographic reference
    CHANSON, H., and TOI, Y.H. (2013). "Breaking tidal bore: comparison between field data and laboratory experiments." Proc. 21ème Congrès Français de Mécanique CFM 2013, Bordeaux, France, 26-30 Aug., Paper R3SJ46ER, 6 pages (USB) (in English). (Record at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
    DOCHERTY, N.J., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Physical Modelling of Unsteady Turbulence in Breaking Tidal Bores." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 138, No. 5, pp. 412-419 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000542) (ISSN 0733-9429). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
    CHANSON, H., and DOCHERTY, N.J. (2012). "Turbulent Velocity Measurements in Open Channel Bores." European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids, Vol. 32, pp. 52-58 (DOI 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2011.10.001) (ISSN 0997-7546). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)

Impact on sediment processes (pp. 123-124)
    Bibliographic references
    KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Simultaneous Measurements of Turbulent Velocity and Sediment Motion under Tidal Bores." Proc. 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China, 8-13 Sept., WANG Z., LEE, J.H.W., GAO, J., and CAO S. Editors, Paper A10216, 10 pages (ISBN 978-7-302-33544-3). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
    KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Inception of Bed Load Motion beneath a Bore." Geomorphology, Vol. 153-154, pp. 39-47 & 2 video movies (DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.02.006) (ISSN 0169-555X). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
    KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Undular and Breaking Tidal Bores on Fixed and Movable Gravel Beds." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 353-363 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2012.686200) (ISSN 0022-1686). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)

Impact of tidal bores on the estuarine processes - Fish egg dispersion (pp. 126-128)
    Bibliographic references
    CHANSON, H., and TAN, K.K. (2011). "Turbulent Dispersion of Fish Eggs under Tidal Bores." Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Tech Science Press, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 403-418 (ISSN 1555-256X (Printed); 1555-2578 (Electronic)). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
    CHANSON, H., and TAN, K.K. (2010). "Turbulent Mixing of Particles under Tidal Bores: an Experimental Analysis." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 641-649 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2010.512779 (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)

Fragility of tidal bore - Effects of bridge piers (pp. 125-126 & 131-142)
    Bibliographic reference
     CHANSON, H. (2011). "Undular Tidal Bores: Effect of Channel Constriction and Bridge Piers." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 385-404 & 4 videos (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-010-9189-5) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)


Field measurements in tidal bores

Australia
Daly River
WOLANSKI, E., WILLIAMS, D., SPAGNOLA, S., and CHANSON, H. (2004). "Undular Tidal Bore Dynamics in the Daly Estuary, Northern Australia." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 629-636 (ISSN 0302-3524). (Download PDF file)
 
France
Garonne River
CHANSON, H., LUBIN, P., SIMON, B., and REUNGOAT, D. (2010). "Turbulence and Sediment Processes in the Tidal Bore of the Garonne River: First Observations." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH79/10, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 97 pages (ISBN 9781742720104). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
SIMON, B., LUBIN, P., REUNGOAT, D., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Turbulence Measurements in the Garonne River Tidal Bore: First Observations." Proc. 34th IAHR World Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June-1 July, Engineers Australia Publication, Eric VALENTINE, Colin APELT, James BALL, Hubert CHANSON, Ron COX, Rob ETTEMA, George KUCZERA, Martin LAMBERT, Bruce MELVILLE and Jane SARGISON Editors, pp. 1141-1148 (ISBN 978-0-85825-868-6). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., REUNGOAT, D., SIMON, B., and LUBIN, P. (2011). "High-Frequency Turbulence and Suspended Sediment Concentration Measurements in the Garonne River Tidal Bore." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 95, No. 2-3, pp. 298-306 (DOI 10.1016/j.ecss.2011.09.012) (ISSN 0272-7714). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and CAPLAIN, B. (2012). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Garonne River at Arcins (June 2012)." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH89/12, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 121 pages (ISBN 9781742720616). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
REUNGOAT, F., CAPLAIN, B., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Garonne River after a Recent Flood." Proc. Coastal Dynamics 2013, Arcachon, France, 24-28 June, pp. 1309-1318. (Record at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and CAPLAIN, B. (2014). "Sediment Processes and Flow Reversal in the Undular Tidal Bore of the Garonne River (France)." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 591–616 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-013-9319-y) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and KEEVIL, C. (2014). "Turbulence, Sedimentary Processes and Tidal Bore Collision in the Arcins Channel, Garonne River (October 2013)." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH94/14, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 145 pages (ISBN 9781742721033). (PDF file at UQeSpace)

Sélune River
MOUAZE, D., CHANSON, H., and SIMON, B. (2010). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Sélune River in the Bay of Mont Saint Michel (September 2010)." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH81/10, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 72 pages (ISBN 9781742720210). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
FURGEROT, L., MOUAZE, D., TESSIER, B., PEREZ, L., and HAQUIN, S. (2013). "Suspended Sediment Concentration in Relation to the Passage of a Tidal Bore (Sée River Estuary, Mont Saint Michel, NW France)." Proc. Coastal Dynamics 2013, Arcachon, France, 24-28 June, pp. 671-682..

United Kingdom
Dee  River
SIMPSON, J.H., FISHER, N.R., and WILES, P. (2004). "Reynolds Stress and TKE Production in an Estuary with a Tidal Bore." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 619-627.

Audiovisual references

"Les Fils de la Lune" (2005) by Philippe LESPINASSE, Grand Angle production, France, 50 minutes. / "The Children of the Moon", SBS, Australia, Sat. 14 Mar. 2009. [UQ Library reference] - The documentary "Les Fils de la Lune" ('Children of the Moon') was shown in Thalassa on channels FR3 and TV5 in November 2005 (over 120 Millions of subscribers worldwide)

NHK Japan Broadcasting Corp (1989). "Pororoca: the Backward Flow of the Amazon." Videocassette VHS colour, NHK, Japan, 29 minutes. [UQ Library reference]

"Rendez Vous avec le Dragon" (2008) by Philippe LESPINASSE, Thalassa on channel France 3, 7 March. 2008.

"Tidal bore of the Dordogne River, France on 27 September 2000" (2000) by Hubert CHANSON, IAHR Media Library, video file (1:10) {http://www.iahrmedialibrary.net}.

"Tidal bore of the Sélune River, Baie du Mont Saint Michel, France on 7 April 2004 (1)" (2004) by Hubert CHANSON, IAHR Media Library, video file (0:38) {http://www.iahrmedialibrary.net}.

"Tidal bore of the Sélune River, Baie du Mont Saint Michel, France on 7 April 2004 (2)" (2004) by Hubert CHANSON, IAHR Media Library, video file (1:09) {http://www.iahrmedialibrary.net}.

"Tidal bore of the Sélune River, Baie du Mont Saint Michel, France on 7 April 2004 (3)" (2004) by Hubert CHANSON, IAHR Media Library, video file (1:09) {http://www.iahrmedialibrary.net}.

"La Tribu du Mascaret" (2004) by Philippe LESPINASSE, Grand Angle production, France, 30 minutes. [UQ Library reference] - Thalassa on channel France 3, 9-10 Dec. 2004. / "Surfing the Dordogne", SBS, Australia, Sat. 7 Oct. 2006.


Useful Links

Technical Resources
Free-surface undulations in open channels: undular jups, undular surges, standing waves ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/undular.html}
Tidal bores, mascaret, pororoca. Myths, fables and reality {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/tid_bore.html}
The Tidal bore of the Seine river (mascaret) ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/mascaret.html}
Whirlpools ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/whirlpl.html}


Photographic Resources

Gallery of Photographs in Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulic Engineering and Water Sciences    {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html}
Photographs of tidal bores ...    {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html#Tidal_bores}
Photographs of whirlpools ...    {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html#Whirlpools}

Research publications
Research Papers in Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Water Engineering    {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/reprints.html}
    Free reprints of research papers in Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulic Engineering and Water Sciences. (Format : *.PDF, *.DOC and *.ZIP.)
{http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/list/author_id/193/} at the open access repository UQeSpace.
Tidal bore of Dordogne River

Hubert CHANSON is a Professor in Civil Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Fluid Mechanics at the University of Queensland, Australia. His research interests include design of hydraulic structures, experimental investigations of two-phase flows, applied hydrodynamics, hydraulic engineering, water quality modelling, environmental fluid mechanics, estuarine processes and natural resources. He has been an active consultant for both governmental agencies and private organisations. His publication record includes over 620 international refereed papers and his work was cited over 3,700 times (WoS) to 6,300 times (Google Scholar) since 1990. Hubert Chanson is the author of several books : "Hydraulic Design of Stepped Cascades, Channels, Weirs and Spillways" (Pergamon, 1995), "Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Shear Flows" (Academic Press, 1997), "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow : An Introduction" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1st edition 1999, 2nd editon 2004), "The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and Spillways" (Balkema, 2001), "Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004), "Applied Hydrodynamics: an Introduction of Ideal and Real Fluid Flows" (CRC Press, 2009), and "Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: Theory And Observations" (World Scientific, 2011). He co-authored two further books "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists" (IPC Press, 2002) and "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists. Student Edition" (IPC, 2006). His textbook "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction" has already been translated into Spanish (McGraw-Hill Interamericana) and Chinese (Hydrology Bureau of Yellow River Conservancy Committee), and the second edition was published in 2004. In 2003, the IAHR presented him with the 13th Arthur Ippen Award for outstanding achievements in hydraulic engineering. The American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental and Water Resources Institute (ASCE-EWRI) presented him with the 2004 award for the Best Practice paper in the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ("Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in Stepped Storm Waterway" by Chanson and Toombes 2002). Hubert Chanson edited further several books : "Fluvial, Environmental and Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering" (Mossa, Yasuda & Chanson 2004, Balkema), "Hydraulics. The Next Wave" (Chanson & Macintosh 2004, Engineers Australia), "Hydraulic Structures: a Challenge to Engineers and Researchers" (Matos & Chanson 2006, The University of Queensland), "Experiences and Challenges in Sewers: Measurements and Hydrodynamics" (Larrate & Chanson 2008, The University of Queensland), "Hydraulic Structures: Useful Water Harvesting Systems or Relics?" (Janssen & Chanson 2010, The University of Queensland), "Balance and Uncertainty: Water in a Changing World" (Valentine et al. 2011, Engineers Australia). He chaired the Organisation of the 34th IAHR World Congress held in Brisbane, Australia between 26 June and 1 July 2011. He chairs the Scientific Committee of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures to be held in Brisbane in June 2014.
 His Internet home page is http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans. He also developed a gallery of photographs website {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html} that received more than 2,000 hits per month since inception.

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Tidal boresEnvironmental hydraulics of open channel flowApplied HydrodynamicsHydraulics of open channel flow (2nd edition)The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and SpillwaysThe Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an IntroductionAir bubble entrainment in turbulent shear flowsHydraulic design of stepped cascades, channels, weirs and spillwaysFluid Mechanics for Ecologists  McGraw-Hill Interamericana 13th Ippen award (IAHR)