Tidal bores, Mascaret, Pororoca (1). Myths, Fables and Reality !!!
by Hubert CHANSON (h.chanson@uq.edu.au)
M.E., ENSHM Grenoble, INSTN, PhD (Cant.), DEng (Qld), Eur.Ing., MIEAust., MIAHR, 13th Arthur Ippen awardee (IAHR)
School of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Autralia
http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/
Presentation
Footnotes
References
Photographs
Related links
about Hubert Chanson


Presentation

Selune river tidal boreWhen a river mouth has a flat, converging shape and when the tidal range exceeds 6 to 9 m, the river may experience a tidal bore (Fig. 1). A tidal bore is basically a series of waves propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising. It is a positive surge. As the surge progresses inland, the river flow is reversed behind it (e.g. LYNCH 1982, CHANSON 2001). The best historically documented tidal bores are probably those of the Seine river (France) and Qiantang river (China). The mascaret of the Seine river was documented first during the 7th and 9th centuries AD, and in writings from the 11th to 16th centuries (MALANDAIN 1988). It was locally known as "la Barre". The Qiantang river bore, also called Hangzhou bore, was early mentioned during the 7th and 2nd centuries BC, and it was described in 8th century writings. The bore was then known as "The Old Faithful" because it kept time better than clocks. A tidal bore on the Indus river might have wiped out the fleet of Alexander the Great (MALANDAIN 1988, JONES 2003). Another famous tidal bore is the "pororoca" of the Amazon river observed by PINZON and LA CONDAMINE in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively. The Hoogly (or Hooghly) bore on the Gange was documented in 19th century shipping reports. Smaller tidal bores occur on the Severn river near Gloucester, England, on the Garonne and Dordogne rivers, France, at Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm, Cook Inlet (Alaska), in the Bay of Fundy (at Petitcodiac and Truro), on the Styx and Daly rivers (Australia), and at Batang Lupar (Malaysia).
Famous ones include the Hangchow (or Hangzhou) bore on the Qiantang river (photo: (1),  (2) , (3) ), the Amazon bore called pororoca (photo: (1), (2) , (3) ; info: see below ), the tidal bore on the Seine river (mascaret) (photo: (1) ; info: (2) ), the Hoogly (or Hooghly) bore on the Gange, the bore on the Mekong river. Smaller tidal bores occur on the Severn river near Gloucester, England (photo : (1), (2) , (3) ), on the Trent river (aegir) (photo: (1)), on the Garonne and Dordogne rivers, France (photo: (1), (2) , (3); info: (3) (4) ), at Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm, Cook Inlet (Alaska) (info: (1) ; photo: (2) , (3) ), the bores in the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia) like at Petitcodiac (info: (1) ), tidal bores on the Styx river QLD and on the Daly river NT (Australia), the tidal bore called benak at Batang Lupar (Malaysia) (photo (1)). Hubert Chanson observed the tidal bore of the Dordogne river on 27 Sept. 2000 (5:00pm).  The bore propagates first in the Gironde before separating and continuing both in the Garonne and in the Dordogne (Map). At St Pardon, the tidal bore was an undular bore on the 27 Sept. 2000. Photographs No. 1 and 3 illustrate the undular nature of the positive surge. Photo No. 1 shows the arriving bore. Photo No. 2 illustrates kayacks and surfers riding the bore. Photo No. 3 was taken just downstream of St Pardon while Photo No. 4 was shot in front of St Pardon. More pictures of tidal bores are here. More about the tidal bore (mascaret) of the Seine river ...

A personal experience of undular tidal bores
Hubert Chanson observed the undular tidal bore of the Dordogne river on 27 Sept. 2000 (5:00pm) (CHANSON 2001, IAHR Congress).  The bore propagates first in the Gironde before separating and continuing both in the Garonne and in the Dordogne (Map). At St Pardon, the tidal bore was an undular bore on the day. Photographs No. 1 and 3 illustrate the undular nature of the positive surge. Photo No. 1 shows the arriving bore. Photo No. 2 illustrates kayacks and surfers riding the bore. Photo No. 3 was taken just downstream of St Pardon while Photo No. 4 was shot in front of St Pardon.
On 7 April, the writer experienced the Sélune river tidal bore at Roche-Torin and Pontaubault, about 90 min. and 30 min. respectively before the high tide at Mont Saint-Michel. The tidal range was 13.75 m and it was the largest tides in the Baie du Mont Saint Michel for 2004. At Roche-Torin, the writer heard the rumble of the tidal bore about 25-30 min. before the bore front arrived. The bore was first visible between Ile de Tombelaine and Pointe du Grouin du Sud (Fig. 3A). The front was more than one kilometre wide and it had not yet divided between the Sée and Sélune river channels. Later the advancing front entered the Sélune river mouth with a celerity of about 2.7 to 3.1 m/s (Fig. 3B). The freshwater flow was negligible and the advancing bore height was about 0.3 to 0.6 m, although the bore constantly evolved in shape in response of changes in channel topography. In front of Roche-Torin, the middle section of the bore was an undular bore in the deep water channel, while breaking bores were observed in the shallower waters and sometimes on dry flats. At one stage, the undular bore disappeared briefly on the channel centreline possibly because of a deeper water hole, although the breaking bores were clearly seen elsewhere moving upstream of Roche-Torin. About 50 min. later, the tidal bore reached Pontaubault, about 8 km upstream of Roche-Torin (Fig. 3C). A group of kayackists was following the bore for a few kilometres. The bore celerity was about 2.5 to 2.7 m/s, the freshwater flow velocity before bore arrival was about 0.1 m/s while the advancing bore front was about 0.4 to 0.6 m high. The bore then flowed beneath a 15th century stone bridge, called Pont Aubaud. The bore passage between the piers was extremely turbulent. Note that the bridge piers were shaped to cut the tidal bore.

Basic theory

 Dordogne riverA surge (2) in an open channel is a sudden change of flow depth (i.e. abrupt increase or decrease in depth). An abrupt increase in flow depth is called a positive surge while a sudden decrease in depth is termed a negative surge. This picture shows an undular surge (propagation from left to right). A positive surge looks like a moving hydraulic jump. The application of the momentum principle to the unsteady flow is based upon a quasi-steady flow situation analogy (CHANSON 1999, pp. 67-71, CHANSON 2012). A bore is a positive surge of tidal origin. Tidal bores occur as the tidal flow turns to rising (e.g. LYNCH 1982) (Links : (1) ). The front of a positive surge absorbs random disturbances on both sides of the surge and this makes the positive surge stable and self-perpetuating. With appropriate boundary conditions, a tidal bore may travel long distances upsteam of the river mouth. For example, the tidal bore on the Pungue river (Mozambique) is still about 0.7 m high about 50 km upstream of the mouth and it may reach 80 km inland.
Although a bore may be analysed using a quasi-steady flow analogy, its inception and development is commonly predicted using the method of characteristics and Saint-Venant equations. During the flood tide, the tailwater level increases with time, and the forward characteristics converge and eventually intersect at a point where the water depth has two values at the same time: i.e., the abrupt front of the tidal bore. After formation of the bore, the flow properties immediately upstream and downstream of the front must satisfy the continuity and momentum principles (e.g. HENDERSON 1966, CHANSON 1999). The shape of the bore is a function of the surge Froude number. For Froude numbers between 1 and 1.3 to 1.5, the bore exhibits an undular profile. For larger Froude numbers, the surge has a breaking front. In the latter, significant energy dissipation takes place in the roller, while the rate of energy dissipation is negligible in undular bores (CHANSON 2001).

Couesnon river tidal boreImpact on mixing and dispersion

Tidal bores induce strong turbulent mixing in the estuary and river mouth. The effect may be felt along considerable distances. Mixing and dispersion in a tidal bore affected estuary are not comparable to well-mixed estuary processes. Instead the effects of the tidal bore must be accounted for and the bore may become the predominant mixing process.
The effect on sediment transport was studied at Petitcodiac and Shubenacadie rivers (Can.), in the Sée and Sélune rivers (Fra.), Ord river (Aus.), Turnagain Arm inlet (Alaska) and on the Hangzhou bay (Chin.) (e.g. TESSIER and TERWINDT 1994, BARTSCH-WINKLER et al. 1985, WOLANSKI et al. 2001, CHEN et al. 1990). The arrival of the bore front is associated with intense bed shear and scour. Behind sediment material is advected upwards by large scale turbulent structures evidenced in the Dordogne river (CHANSON 2001). Sediment suspension behind the bore is sustained by strong long-lasting wave motion. At the Dee river (UK), Dr E. JONES observed more than 230 waves, also called whelps or éteules. MURPHY's (1983) photograph showed more than 30 well-formed undulations behind the Amazon pororoca. At the Dordogne river (Fra.), the writer observed an intense wave motion lasting more than 20 minutes after the bore passage (CHANSON 2001,2003).
Diffusion coefficient estimates in rivers and estuaries were developed for gradually-varied flows and uniform equilibrium flows. They do not apply to rapidly varied flow conditions: e.g., hydraulic jumps, tidal bores. Hydraulic jumps are known indeed for their strong mixing properties (HENDERSON 1966, CHANSON 1999). Experimental observations of mixing coefficients in hydraulic jumps and bores are summarised in CHANSON (2003). In laboratory hydraulic jumps, the vertical diffusion coefficient of entrained air bubbles was about:: Dv/(V1*d1) ~ 4.5 E-2 for 5 < Fr < 8.5, in the turbulent shear flows, where d1 is the upstream water depth, V1 is the upstream flow velocity and Fr is the inflow Froude number (CHANSON and BRATTBERG 2000). In another series of experiments with dye and salt injection at the jump toe, complete vertical and transverse mixing was rapid implying a transverse mixing coefficient estimate: Dt/(V1*d1) ~ 0.14 for 5.9 < Fr < 7.7. In the Ord river, transverse sediment diffusivity et was estimated to be about 0.71 m2/s. For comparison, measured transverse diffusivities were about 0.014 to 0.02 m2/s in the Severn river that has a similar water depth and possibly smaller width (ELLIOTT et al.'s work, in LEWIS 1997).
Overall the results (CHANSON 2003,2004) emphasise strong mixing coefficients that are consistent with a few field measurements and visual field observations everywhere.Hangzhou tidal bore

Discussion

The impact of tidal bores on the ecology is acknowledged. In the Amazon river, piranhas eat matter in suspension after the passage of the bore (COUSTEAU and RICHARDS 1984). At Turnagain Arm inlet, bald eagles and eagles were seen fishing behind the bore, while beluga whales were observed playing in the bore as it formed near the mouth of the arm (BARTSCH-WINKLER and LYNCH 1988, MOLCHAN-DOUTHIT 1998). In the same estuary, a moose tried unsuccessfully to outrun the bore; he was caught and disappeared (MOLCHAN and DOUTHIT 1998). In Australia, sharks and crocodiles were seen feeding behind bores (Daly river, Broadsound). In the Severn river, the bore impacted on sturgeons in the past and on elvers (young eels) today (WITTS 1999, JONES 2003). In the Bay of Fundy, RIFSON and TULL (1999) studied the impact of bores on striped bass spawning.
A tidal bore is a very fragile process. The bore development is closely linked with the tidal range and river mouth shape. Once formed, the bore existence relies upon the exact momentum balance between the initial and new flow conditions. A small change in boundary conditions and river flow may affect adversely the bore existence. Dredging and river training yielded the disappearance of several tidal bores : the mascaret of the Seine river (Fra.) no longer exists, the Colorado river bore (Mex.) is drastically smaller. Although the fluvial traffic gained in safety in each case, the ecology of the estuarine zones were adversely affected. The tidal bores of the Couesnon (Fra.) and Petitcodiac (Ca.) rivers almost disappeared after construction of an upstream barrage (Fig. 3). Natural events may also affect a tidal bore. During the 1964 Alaska earthquake (magnitude 8.5), the inlet bed at Turnagain and Knik Arms subsided by 2.4 m. Since smaller bores have been observed. Also at Turnagain and Knik Arm inlets, strong and winds (opposing the flood tide) were seen to strengthen the bore. On the other side, the construction of the Ord river dam (Aus.) induced siltation of the river mouth and appearance of a bore (WOLANSKI et al. 2001). The bore disappeared since following large flood flows in 2000 and 2001 which scoured the river bed.

Dordogne riverFootnotes

(1) The word mascaret is the French translation of tidal bore. The front of the tidal bore was locally called 'la barre'. It is thought that the word 'mascaret' comme from Southern France (langue d'oc). Translations of the word tidal bore include : Tidal bore (English) = Mascaret (French) = Pororoca (Portuguese, Brazil) = Aegir (or eagre) (Celtic).

(2) A surge is a sudden change of flow depth in an open channel (i.e. abrupt increase or decrease in depth). An abrupt increase in flow depth is called a positive surge while a sudden decrease in depth is termed a negative surge. A positive surge looks like a moving hydraulic jump. Its flow properties may be solved by applying the momentum principle to the unsteady flow based upon a quasi-steady flow situation analogy (CHANSON 1999, pp. 67-71).

Photographs

The Seine river tidal bore
Photo No. 1 : at Caudebec-en Caux around 1960, view from the bac (ferry) looking at the right bank (Photograph by Raymond HUON, Courtesy of Sequana-Normandie).
Photo No. 2 : Bac de Caudebec-en Caux facing the mascaret in 1958, view from the right bank (boats and ships had to leave the wharf to face the  mascaret in a similar way) (Copyright: Alain HUON, Courtesy of Sequana-Normandie).
Photo No. 3 : the passage of the mascaret in the 1930s, photograph taken at the ramp of the ferry at Yainville (France), right bank, near the old power station (Courtesy of G. FROMAGER).
Photo No. 4 : after the passage of the masaret looking upsteam, view from right bank between Yainville and Jumieges, looking toward  Heurteauville; Note the quite river upstream of the bore (on the left top) (Courtesy of Sequana-Normandie).
Photo No. 5 : the mascaret at Aizier, near Quilleboeuf (view from left bank) (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN).
Photo No. 6 :  mascaret at Quilleboeuf (Photo I. Hernault, Le Havre) (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN).
Photo No. 7 : the mascaret at Villequier, ancient gravure (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN).
Photo No. 8 : mascaret on the Risle, a tributary of the Seine river at Pont-Audemer (Collection A. Renard, editeur, Pont-Audemer) (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN).

Qiantang River boreOther tidal bores

Mascaret on the Dordogne river, at Vayres (au Port de Saint Pardon, France) : looking in the bore direction, looking upstream (Courtesy of Fabrice COLAS). The tidal bore (mascaret) on the 27 Sept. 2000: Photo No. 1 : arriving bore; Photo No. 2 : kayacks and surfers; Photo No. 3 : close to St Pardon; Photo No. 4 : in front of St Pardon. Tidal bore on the Dordogne river on 21 Feb. 2004 : Photo No. 1 : arriving bore (surge Froude number about 1.05 to 1.1) at St Pardon; Photo No. 2 : bore moving upstream towards Vayres. Photo No. 3 : fisherman catching lamproie fish with net few minutes prior the bore arrival between Vayres and St Pardon. Tidal  bore of the Dordogne river on 4 July 2008 : Photo No. 1 : view from Saint Pardon : very weak undular surge. Photo No. 2 : looking upstream towards Vayres. Menhir de Pierrefitte : neolithic mounument located at Chateau Saint Martial, on the right bank next to the old Pierrefitte harbour which serviced Saint Emilion up the 16th century. Tidal bore on 20 July 2008 at sunrise : Photo No. 1 : Dordogne river in front of Port de Saint Pardon before the tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : ripple in the channel centreline marking the tidal bore front, view from the left bank. Photo No. 3 : wave breaking next to the left bank. Photo No. 4 : whelps 60 seconds after the tidal bore front passage. Tidal bore on 21 July 2008 at sunrise : Photo No. 1 : tidal bore front approching the jetty of Saint Pardon at 07:03. Photo No. 2 : wave breaking at the jetty during the wave front passage. Photo No. 3 : wave breaking on the jetty about 58 s after the tidal bore front passage. Tidal bore on 2 September 2008 evening : Photo No. 1: View from Port de Saint Pardon, looking downstream. Photo No. 2 : surfers in front of Port de Saint Pardon. Photo No. 3 : surfers on the second wave crest passing in front of Port de Saint Pardon.
Tidal bore near Truro (Bay of Fundy, Canada) :looking upstream, detail of bank erosion (Courtesy of Larry SMITH). Photo No. 3 : arriving tidal bore on the Salmon river on 22 Sept. 2001 (Courtesy of Dr M.R. GOURLAY). Photo No. 4 :  sideview of tidal bore on the Salmon river on 22 Sept. 2001 (Courtesy of Dr M.R. GOURLAY)
Severn river (England) : Photo No. 1 : at Awre where the estuary is wide and shallow (Courtesy of Professor D.H. PEREGRINE) - Photo No. 2 : further upriver where the Severn river is deeper and narrower (Courtesy of Professor D.H. PEREGRINE).
The tidal bore on the Qiantang River near Hangzhou, China, also known as the Hangchow or Hangzou bore : Photo No.1: Qiantang River bore at Hangzhou CBD City Balcony on 9 October 2014. Photo No.2: tidal bore at Qilimiao downstream of Yanguan on 11 October 2014. Photo No. 3: tidal bore between Yanguan and Laoyanchang on 11 October 2014. Photo No. 4: breaking tidal bore and roller between between Yanguan and Laoyanchang on 11 October 2011. Photo No. 5: tidal bore reflection at Laoyanchang on 11 October 2011. Photo No. 6 : tidal bore impact on sluice gate structure at Jiuxi on 11 October 2014; in the foreground, the reflected wave overtopped the river bank, flooding the nearby arterial and causing some traffic accident and traffic jam. Photo No. 7: tidal bore at Meilvba overtopping a spur dyke on 12 October 2014. Photo No. 8: tidal bore impact on the sea wall at Xinchang on 13 October 2014; the bore was reflected on the wall and the reflection came back about 40 minutes later. Photo No. 9: tidal bore warning sign at Meilvba in October 2014; in this area, the embankent dyke is regularly overtopped. Photo No. 11 : view from the left bank (Courtesy of Dr J. Eric JONES); Photo No. 12 : another detailed view (Courtesy of Dr J. Eric JONES).
The tidal bore of the Petitcodiac river, near Moncton (Bay of Fundy, Canada). Photo No. 1 : in spring 1908? near Moncton, the bore height being about 1 to 1.5 m (Courtesy of the Petitcodiac Riverkeeper) - Photo No. 2 : on 23 Mar. 2000, the bore height was estimated to be about 0.5 m. The river discharge was larger than usual because of snow melt (Courtesy of the Petitcodiac Riverkeeper).
Tidal bore on the Couesnon river (France). The tidal bore is significantly weaker since the construction of an upstream barrage. Photo No. 1 : approaching bore on 7 March 2004 around 18:20. Photo No. 2 : bore seen from the Tour de Gabriel on 7 March 2004 (bore flowing from right to left). Photo No. 3 : Couesnon river at low tide on 4 Feb. 2004, looking upstream from Mont Saint Michel monastery.
Tidal bore of the Sélune river, Baie du Mont Saint Michel (France).  Tidal bore on 7 April 2004 : tidal range = 13.75 m (highest tidal range for 2004). Photo No. 1 : Sélune river estuary, viewed from left bank at Roche-Torin at sunrise on 7/4/04 beofre tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore seen from Roche-Torin far away in front of Ile de Tombelaine with seagulls (white dots) in front of the bore. Photo No. 3 : advancing tidal bore in front of Pointe du Grouin du Sud.  Photo No. 4 : advancing bore front viewed from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 5 : advancing bore front viewed from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 6 : advancing bore front just in front of Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 7 : tidal bore advancing upstream, seen from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 8 : approaching tidal bore, one hour later, upstream of Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 9 : approaching tidal bore, one hour later, upstream of Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 10 : Sélune river tidal bore approaching Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 11 : Sélune river tidal bore passing below Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04; note the bridge pier "knife" shape; note also that the bore became an undular bore just downstream of the bridge, possibly because of a local scour hole. Photo No. 12 : strong current below Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) on 7/4/04 after the tidal bore passage, view from left bank looking upstream. Tidal bore on 2 August 2008: tidal range = 12.65 m. Photo No. 1 : Sélune river tidal bore at Roche Torin on 2/8/08 at sunset, viewed from the left bank (bore propagation from left to right). Photo No. 2 : tidal bore propagation past Roche Torin on 2/8/08. Photo No. 3 : tidal bore past Roche Torin on 2/8/08. Photo No. 4 : Sélune river tidal bore at Pontaubault on 2/8/08 at sunset, about 1 hour after flowing past Roche Torin. Photo No. 5 : Sélune river tidal bore at Pontaubault on 2/8/08, approaching the histoical Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge); note the undular nature of the tidal bore and the whelps (éteules). Photo No. 6 : interactions of the whelps (éteules) with the bridge piers shortly after the tidal bore front passage on 2/8/08. Tidal bore on 3 August 2008: tidal range = 12.65 m. Photo No. 1 : Sélune river tidal bore at Roche Torin on 3/8/08 shortly after sunrise, viewed from the left bank (bore propagation from left to right). Photo No. 2 : tidal bore propagation at Roche Torin on 3/8/08.
    Read Coastal Observations: The Tidal Bore of the Sélune River, Baie du Mont Saint Michel, France (Shore & Beach, 2004, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 14-16)
Tidal bore of the Garonne river, France. Tidal bore on 5 July 2008 at Arcins (Latresnes). Photo No. 1 : tidal bore entering the Arcins channel. Photo No. 2 : incoming undular bore in the Arcins channel around 6:20am looking downstream. Photo No. 3 : whelps (eteules) behind the bore front shaking the pontoon and jetty. Tidal bore on 5 July 2008 at Langoiran. Photo No. 1 : very weak bore with some was breaking next to the left bank about 7:05am, while there was no bore in the main channel nor next to the right bank. Tidal bore on 6 July 2008 at Arcins (Latresnes). Photo No. 1 : looking downstream at the incoming bore around 7:10am; note the small ripple formed by the tidal bore. Photo No. 2 : undular bore passing in front of the photographer. Photo No. 3 : propagating bore; note the strong mixing and reflection in the inlet in the foreground. Tidal bore on 19 July 2008 at Podensac.Photo No. 1 : large-scale vortical structures at the free-surface on the channel centreline on 19 July 2008 at end of ebb tide flow (18:30) shortly before tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore propagation next to left bank looking dowsntream at 18:43. Photo No. 3 : details of the bore front impact on the left bank. Tidal bore on 20 July 2008 at Langoiran. Photo No. 1 : surfer riding the bore front next to the left bank. Photo No. 2 : surfer getting back to the boat after the ride. Tidal  bore on 2 September 2008 at Podensac. Photo No. 1 : Advancing bore with surfers. Photo No. 2 : surfers next to the left bank. Tidal bore on 3 September 2008 at Baurech. Photographs taken from a kayack surfing the Garonne River bore. Photo No. 1 : looking towards the left bank while riding ahead of the first wave crest. Photo No. 2 : looking towards the right bank at several kayacks riding ahead the first wave crest. Photo No. 3 : riding the whelps behind the bore front.
Tidal bores in Bretagne (Brittany), France. (1) Tidal bore of the Arguenon River, Bretagne (Brittany). Photo No. 1 : tidal bore at Les Pierre Sonantes, le Guildo on 15 Oct. 2008. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore betwen Le Guildo and Créhen. (2) Tidal bore of the Frémur Creek, Côtes d'Armor, Bretagne (Brittany). Photo No. 1 : tidal bore at Port-à-la Duc on  15 Oct. 2008. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore upstream of Port-à-la Duc on  16 Oct. 2008.

Related links

{http://www.sequana-normandie.com/} Sequana-Normandie
{http://www.ac-rouen.fr/ecoles/saint-ouen/labarre.htm} Ecole de Saint-Ouen, Rouen (France)
{http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html#Tidal bores, mascaret, pororoca} Gallery of photographs
{http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/civ3140.html#Surges} Explanations on tidal bores
{http://boreridersclub.tripod.com/Club.html} Severn Bore Rider Club (UK)
{http://www.did.sarawak.gov.my/benak/benak_gallery.htm} Tidal Bore at Batang Lupar (Malaysia)
{http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/mascaret.html}
Tidal bore of the Seine river
{http://www.portofcalcutta.com/} Information on Hoogly tidal bore times


Video movie on YouTube
Tidal Bore Research at the University of Queensland - {https://youtu.be/q1ieo7fQ6X8}

Such a bore - {https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7mO5-wxnqTA}


ReferencesSelune river bore

CHANSON, H. (1999). "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction." Butterworth-Heinemann, London, UK, 512 pages (ISBN 0 340 74067 1).
CHANSON, H. (2001). "Flow Field in a Tidal Bore : a Physical Model." Proc. 29th IAHR Congress, Beijing, China, Theme E, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, G. LI Ed., pp. 365-373 (ISBN 7-302-04676-X/TV). (CD-ROM, Tsinghua University Press, ISBN 7-900637-10-9.) (UQeSpace) (download PDF file)

CHANSON, H. (2003). "Mixing and Dispersion in Tidal Bores. A Review." Proc. Intl Conf. on Estuaries & Coasts ICEC 2003, Hangzhou, China, Nov. 8-11, Intl Research & Training Center on Erosion & Sedimentation Ed., Vol. 2, pp. 763-769 (ISBN 7 900 662 67 7/G.79). (Download PDF File)

CHANSON, H. (2012). "Momentum Considerations in Hydraulic Jumps and Bores." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 138, No. 4, pp. 382-385 (DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000409) (ISSN 0733-9437). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)

CHANSON, H., and BRATTBERG, T. (2000). "Experimental Study of the Air-Water Shear Flow in a Hydraulic Jump." Intl Jl of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 583-607 (ISSN 0301-9322).  (download PDF file)

DONNELLY, C., and CHANSON, H. (2002). "Environmental impact of a Tidal Bore on Tropical Rivers." Proc. 5th Intl River Management Symp., Brisbane, Australia, Sept., 3-6, 9 pages. (Download PDF File)

HENDERSON, F.M. (1966). "Open Channel Flow." MacMillan Company, New York, USA.

JONES, E. (2003). Person. Comm., 26 March.

LYNCH, D.K. (1982). "Tidal Bores." Scientific American, Vol. 247, No. 4, Oct., pp. 134-143.

MALANDAIN, J.J. (1988). "La Seine au Temps du Mascaret." ('The Seine River at the Time of the Mascaret.') Le Chasse-Marée, No. 34, pp. 30-45 (in French).

TRICKER, R.A.R. (1965). "Bores, Breakers, Waves and Wakes." American Elsevier Publ. Co., New York, USA.

Bibiography

BARTSCH-WINKLER, S., and LYNCH, D.K. (1988). "Catalog of Worldwide Tidal Bore Occurrences and Characteristics." US Geological Survey Circular, No. 1022, 17 pages.
BARTSCH-WINKLER, S., EMMANUEL, R.P., and WINKLER, G.R. (1985). "Reconnaissance Hydrology and Suspended Sediment Analysis, Turnagain Arm Estuary, Upper Cook Inlet." US Geological Survey Circular, No. 967, pp. 48-52.
BAZIN, H. (1865). "Recherches Expérimentales sur la Propagation des Ondes." ('Experimental Research on Wave Propagation.') Mémoires présentés par divers savants
à l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, France, Vol. 19, pp. 495-644 (in French).
BEAVER, W.N. (1920). "Unexplored New Guinea. A Record of the Travels of a Resident Magistrate amongst the Head-Hunting Savages and Cannibals of the Unexplored Interior of New Guinea." Seeley, Service & Co, London, UK, 320 pages.
CHANSON, H. (2004). "Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows." Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK (ISBN 0 7506 6165 8).
CHANSON, H. (2004). "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction." Butterworth-Heinemann, 2nd edition, Oxford, UK (ISBN 0 7506 5978 5).
CHANSON, H. (2004). "Mixing and Dispersion Role of Tidal Bores." in "Fluvial, Environmental & Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering", Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands, Proc. Intl Workshop on State-of-the-Art Hydraulic Engineering, 16-19 Feb. 2004, Bari, Italy, M. MOSSA, Y. YASUDA and H. CHANSON Ed., pp. 223-232 (ISBN 04 1535 899 X). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Download PDF file) (Leaflet and Order Form)
CHANSON, H. (2004). "Coastal Observations: The Tidal Bore of the Sélune River, Baie du Mont Saint Michel, France." Shore & Beach, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 14-16 (ISSN 0037-4237). (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H. (2005). "Mascaret, Aegir, Pororoca, Tidal Bore. Quid ? Où? Quand? Comment? Pourquoi ?" Jl La Houille Blanche, No. 3, pp. 103-114 (ISSN 0018-6368) (in French). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H. (2005). "Physical Modelling of the Flow Field in an Undular Tidal Bore." Jl of Hyd. Res., IAHR, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 234-244 (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H. (2008). "Turbulence in Positive Surges and Tidal Bores. Effects of Bed Roughness and Adverse Bed Slopes." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH68/08, Div. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 121 pages & 5 movie files (ISBN 9781864999198). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Movie files at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H. (2008). "Photographic Observations of Tidal Bores (Mascarets) in France." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH71/08, Div. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 104 pages, 1 movie and 2 audio files (ISBN 9781864999303). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Movie file and sound audio files at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H. (2009). "The Rumble Sound Generated by a Tidal Bore Event in the Baie du Mont Saint Michel." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 125, No. 6, pp. 3561-3568 (DOI: 10.1121/1.3124781) (ISSN 00014966). (PDF file) (PDF file at UQeSpace) Digital appendix: (.WAV file at UQeSpace). Data set: UQeSpace data collection.
CHANSON, H. (2009). "An Experimental Study of Tidal Bore Propagation: the Impact of Bridge Piers and Channel Constriction." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH74/08, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 110 pages & 5 movies (ISBN 9781864999600). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Movies at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H. (2010). "Unsteady Turbulence in Tidal Bores: Effects of Bed Roughness." Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 136, No. 5, pp. 247-256 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000048) (ISSN 0733-950X). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H. (2010). "Undular Bores." Proc. Second International Conference on Coastal Zone Engineering and Management (Arabian Coast 2010), November 1-3, 2010, Muscat, Oman, Sultan Qaboos University Press, Invited plenary lecture, pp. 29-40 (ISSN 2219-1283). (PDF file) (PDF file at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H. (2011). "Current Knowledge in Tidal bores and their Environmental, Ecological  and Cultural Impacts." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 77-98 (DOI:  10.1007/s10652-009-9160-5) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H. (2011). "Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: Theory and Observations." World Scientific, Singapore, 220 pages (ISBN 9789814335416).
CHANSON, H. (2013). "Tidal Bore Research: Field Works, Physical Modeling, CFD & More." Proc. 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China, 8-13 Sept., WANG Z., LEE, J.H.W., GAO, J., and CAO S. Editors, Invited lecture, Paper A12210, 11 pages (ISBN 978-7-302-33544-3). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H. (2016). "Atmospheric Noise of a Breaking Tidal Bore." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 139, No. 1, pp. 12-20 (DOI: 10.1121/1.4939113) (ISSN 00014966). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and DOCHERTY, N.J. (2012). "Turbulent Velocity Measurements in Open Channel Bores." European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids, Vol. 32, pp. 52-58 (DOI 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2011.10.001) (ISSN 0997-7546). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
CHANSON, H., LUBIN, P., and GLOCKNER, S. (2012). "Unsteady Turbulence in a Shock: Physical and Numerical Modelling in Tidal Bores and Hydraulic Jumps." in "Turbulence: Theory, Types and Simulation", Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge NY, USA, Ed. R.J. MARCUSO, Chapter 3, pp. 113-148 (ISBN 978-1-61761-735-5). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., REUNGOAT, D., SIMON, B., and LUBIN, P. (2011). "High-Frequency Turbulence and Suspended Sediment Concentration Measurements in the Garonne River Tidal Bore." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 95, No. 2-3, pp. 298-306 (DOI 10.1016/j.ecss.2011.09.012) (ISSN 0272-7714). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and TAN, K.K. (2011). "Turbulent Dispersion of Fish Eggs under Tidal Bores." Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Tech Science Press, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 403-418 (DOI: 10.3970/fdmp.2011.007.403) (ISSN 1555-256X (Printed); 1555-2578 (Electronic)). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and TOI, Y.H. (2013). "Breaking tidal bore: comparison between field data and laboratory experiments." Proc. 21ème Congrès Français de Mécanique CFM 2013, Bordeaux, France, 26-30 Aug., Paper R3SJ46ER, 6 pages (USB) (in English). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and TOI, Y.H. (2015). "Physical Modelling of Breaking Tidal Bores: Comparison with Prototype Data." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 264-273 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2014.989458) (ISSN 0022-1686). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
CHEN, Jiyu, LIU, Cangzi, ZHANG, Chongle, and WALKER, H.J. (1990). "Geomorphological Development and Sedimentation in Qiantang Estuary and Hangzhou Bay." Jl of Coastal Res., Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 559-572.
COUSTEAU, J.Y., and RICHARDS, M. (1984). "Jacques Cousteau's Amazon Journey." The Cousteau Society, Paris, France. (also RD Press, Australia, 1985.)
DOCHERTY, N.J., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Physical Modelling of Unsteady Turbulence in Breaking Tidal Bores." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 138, No. 5, pp. 412-419 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000542) (ISSN 0733-9429). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
DONNELLY, C., and CHANSON, H. (2005). "Environmental Impact of Undular Tidal Bores in Tropical Rivers." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 481-494 (ISSN 1567-7419). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Download PDF file)
FAVRE, H. (1935). "Etude Théorique et Expérimentale des Ondes de Translation dans les Canaux Découverts." ('Theoretical and Experimental Study of Travelling Surges in Open Channels.') Dunod, Paris, France (in French).
FURGEROT, L. (2014). "Propriétés hydrodynamiques du mascaret et de son influence sur la dynamique sédimentaire. Une approche couplée en canal et in situ (estuaire de la Sée, Baie du Mont Saint Michel)." (Hydrodynamic characteristics of tidal bores and impact on sedimentary processes. A combination of laboratory experimenta and field studies (Sée estuary, Bay of Mont Saint Michel).') Ph.D. thesis, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, laboratory M2C, Caen, France, 386 pages.
GORDON, J.H. (1924). "Tidal Bore at Mouth of Colorado River. December 8 to 10, 1923." Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 52, Feb., pp. 98-99.
KEEVIL, C.E., CHANSON, H., and REUNGOAT, D. (2015)." Fluid Flow and Sediment Entrainment in the Garonne River Bore and Tidal Bore Collision." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 40, No. 12, pp. 1574-1586 (DOI: 10.1002/esp.3735) (ISSN 0197-9337). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
KHEZRI, N. (2014). "Modelling Turbulent Mixing and Sediment Process Beneath Tidal Bores: Physical and Numerical Investigations." Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 267 pages. (PDF file at UQeSpace)
KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Inception of Bed Load Motion beneath a Bore." Geomorphology, Vol. 153-154, pp. 39-47 (DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.02.006) (ISSN 0169-555X). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Sediment Inception under Breaking Tidal Bores." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 41, pp. 49-53 (DOI 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2012.02.010) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace) (Digital appendix: video movie)
KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Simultaneous Measurements of Turbulent Velocity and Sediment Motion under Tidal Bores." Proc. 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China, 8-13 Sept., WANG Z., LEE, J.H.W., GAO, J., and CAO S. Editors, Paper A10216, 10 pages (ISBN 978-7-302-33544-3). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
KIRI, U., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Positive Surge Propagation in a Non-Rectangular Asymmetrical Channel." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH110/18, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 159 pages and 2 digital appendices incl. 5 movies (ISBN 978-1-74272-196-5). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Digital Appendices and Movies at UQeSpace)
KJERFVE, B., and FERREIRA, H.O. (1993). "Tidal Bores: First Ever Measurements." Ciência e Cultura (Jl of the Brazilian Assoc. for the Advancement of Science), Vol. 45,
No. 2, March/April, pp. 135-138.
KOCH, C., and CHANSON, H. (2005). "An Experimental Study of Tidal Bores and Positive Surges: Hydrodynamics and Turbulence of the Bore Front." Report No. CH56/05, Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, July, 170 pages (ISBN 1864998245).(PDF file at UQeSpace) (Download PDF file) (also PDF Version at EprintsUQ)
KOCH, C., and CHANSON, H. (2006). "Unsteady Turbulence Characteristics in an Undular Bore." Proc. International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics River Flow 2006, Lisbon, Portugal, 6-8 Sept., Topic A1, R.M.L. FERREIRA, E.C.T.L. ALVES, J.G.A.B. LEAL, and A.H. CARDOSO Eds., Balkema Publ., Taylor & Francis Group, London, Vol. 1, pp. 79-88 (ISBN 0 415 40815 6). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (PDF version at EprintsUQ) (Preprint)
KOCH, C., and CHANSON, H. (2008). "Turbulent Mixing beneath an Undular Bore Front." Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 999-1007 (DOI: 10.2112/06-0688.1) (ISSN 0749-0208). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
LENG, X. (2018). "Study of Turbulence: the Unsteady Propagation of Bores and Surges." Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 364 pages & 2 Digital Appendices (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2018.501). (PDF at UQeSpace)  (Digital Appendix E & Digital Appendix F)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Turbulent Advances of Breaking Bores: Experimental Observations." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH96/14, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 40 pages (ISBN 978 1 74272 130 9). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Breaking Bore: Physical Observations of Roller Characteristics." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 65, pp. 24-29 (DOI: 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2015.02.008) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Unsteady Turbulence during the Upstream Propagation of Undular and Breaking Tidal Bores: an Experimental Investigation." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH98/15, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 235 pages & 4 video movies (ISBN 978 1 74272 135 4). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Video movies at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Turbulent Advances of a Breaking Bore: Preliminary Physical Experiments." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 62, pp. 70-77 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2014.12.002) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Coupling between Free-surface Fluctuations, Velocity Fluctuations and Turbulent Reynolds Stresses during the Upstream Propagation of Positive Surges, Bores and Compression Waves." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 695-719 & digital appendix (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-015-9438-8) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Digital appendix) (Reprint at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Two-phase Flow Characteristics of a Breaking Tidal Bore Roller: Microscopic Properties." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH109/18, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 190 pages (ISBN 978-1-74272-195-8). (Deposit at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Transverse Velocity Profiling under Positive Surges in Channels." Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 64, pp. 14-27 (DOI: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2018.10.006) (ISSN 0955-5986). (PDF file) (Reprint at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., CHANSON, H., and REUNGOAT, D. (2018). "Turbulence and Turbulent Flux Events in Tidal Bores: Case Study of the Undular Tidal Bore of the Garonne River." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 807-828 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-017-9561-9) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
LUBIN, P., GLOCKNER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2010). "Numerical Simulation of a Weak Breaking Tidal Bore." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 119-121 (DOI: 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2009.09.008) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
KOCH, C., and CHANSON, H. (2009). "Turbulence Measurements in Positive Surges and Bores." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 29-40 (DOI: 10.3826/jhr.2009.2954) (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
MOLCHAN-DOUTHIT, M. (1998). "Alaska Bore Tales." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Anchorage, USA, revised, 2 pages.
MONTES, J.S. (1979). "Undular Hydraulic Jump - Discussion." Jl of Hyd. Div., ASCE, Vol. 105, No. HY9, pp. 1208-1211.
MONTES, J.S. (1986). "A Study of the Undular Jump Profile." Proc. 9th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference AFMC, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 148-151.
MONTES, J.S., and CHANSON, H. (1998). "Characteristics of Undular Hydraulic Jumps. Results and Calculations." Jl of Hyd. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 192-205 (ISSN 0733-9429). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (download PDF file)
MOUAZE, D., CHANSON, H., and SIMON, B. (2010). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Sélune River in the Bay of Mont Saint Michel (September 2010)." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH81/10, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 72 pages (ISBN 9781742720210). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
PAN, D.Z., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Physical Modelling of Tidal Bore Dyke Overtopping: Implication on Individuals' Safety." Proc. 36th IAHR World Congress, The Hague, The Netherlands, 27 June-3 July, Paper 78972, 8 pages (ISBN 978-90-824846-0-1). (PDF file)
PEREGRINE, D.H. (1966). "Calculations of the Development of an Undular Bore." Jl Fluid Mech., Vol. 25, Part 2, pp. 321-330.
REUNGOAT, F., CAPLAIN, B., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Garonne River after a Recent Flood." Proc. Coastal Dynamics 2013, Arcachon, France, 24-28 June, pp. 1309-1318. (Record at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and CAPLAIN, B. (2014). "Sediment Processes and Flow Reversal in the Undular Tidal Bore of the Garonne River (France)." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 591–616 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-013-9319-y) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and KEEVIL, C.E, (2014). "Turbulence, Sedimentary Processes and Tidal Bore Collision in the Arcins Channel, Garonne River (October 2013)." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH94/14, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 145 pages (ISBN 9781742721033). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and KEEVIL, C.E. (2015). "Field Measurements of Unsteady Turbulence in a Tidal Bore: the Garonne River in October 2013." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 291-301 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2015.1021717) (ISSN 0022-1686). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
REUNGOAT, D., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Hydrodynamic and Sedimentary Processes of Tidal Bores: Arcins Channel, Garonne River in August-September-October 2015." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH102/16, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 270 pages (ISBN 978-1-74272-155-2). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
REUNGOAT, D., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Successive impact of tidal bores on sedimentary processes: Arcins channel, Garonne River." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 188, pp. 163-173 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.02.025) (ISSN 0272-7714). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
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SIMON, B. (2014). "Effects of Tidal Bores on Turbulent Mixing: a Numerical and Physical Study in Positive Surges." Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 259 pages & 7 movies. (PDF file at UQeSpace)
SIMON, B., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Turbulence Measurements in Tidal Bore-like Positive Surges over a Rough Bed." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH90/12, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 176 pages (ISBN 9781742720685). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TESSIER, B., and TERWINDT, J.H.J. (1994). "An Example of Soft-Sediment Deformations in an intertidal Environment - The Effect of a Tidal Bore". Comptes-Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série II, Vol. 319, No. 2, Part 2, pp. 217-233 (in French).
TOI, Y.H., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Turbulent Mixing in Breaking Tidal Bores: Comparison between Field and Laboratory Data." Proc. 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China, 8-13 Sept., WANG Z., LEE, J.H.W., GAO, J., and CAO S. Editors, Paper A10201, 10 pages (ISBN 978-7-302-33544-3). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
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WOLANSKI, E., WILLIAMS, D., SPAGNOLA, S., and CHANSON, H. (2004). "Undular Tidal Bore Dynamics in the Daly Estuary, Northern Australia." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 629-636 (ISSN 0302-3524). (Download PDF file)
YEOW, S.C., CHANSON, H., and WANG, H. (2016). "Impact of a large cylindrical roughness on tidal bore propagation." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 8, pp. 724-734 (DOI: 10.1139/cjce-2015-0557) (ISSN 0315-1468). (PDF file) (Reprint at UQeSpace)

Acknowledgments

McGraw-Hill Interamericana Hubert CHANSON thanks Dr Eric Jones for his helpful discussion and advice. Photographs courtesy of Sequana-Normandie (Caudebec-en-Caux, France), Jean-Jacques MALANDAIN, Dr Eric JONES, Professor Howell PEREGRINE, Petitcodiac Riverkeeper.

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Hubert CHANSON is a Professor in Civil Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Fluid Mechanics at the University of Queensland, Australia. His research interests include design of hydraulic structures, experimental investigations of two-phase flows, applied hydrodynamics, hydraulic engineering, water quality modelling, environmental fluid mechanics, estuarine processes and natural resources. He has been an active consultant for both governmental agencies and private organisations. His publication record includes over 850 international refereed papers and his work was cited over 4,300 times (WoS) to 15,500 times (Google Scholar) since 1990. His h-index is 34 (WoS), 38 (Scopus) and 61 (Google Scholar), and he is ranked among the 150 most cited researchers in civil engineering in Shanghai’s Global Ranking of Academics. Hubert Chanson is the author of twenty books, including "Hydraulic Design of Stepped Cascades, Channels, Weirs and Spillways" (Pergamon, 1995), "Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Shear Flows" (Academic Press, 1997), "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow : An Introduction" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1st edition 1999, 2nd editon 2004), "The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and Spillways" (Balkema, 2001), "Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004), "Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: Theory And Observations" (World Scientific, 2011) and "Applied Hydrodynamics: an Introduction" (CRC Press, 2014). He co-authored two further books "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists" (IPC Press, 2002) and "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists. Student Edition" (IPC, 2006). His textbook "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction" has already been translated into Spanish (McGraw-Hill Interamericana) and Chinese (Hydrology Bureau of Yellow River Conservancy Committee), and the second edition was published in 2004. In 2003, the IAHR presented him with the 13th Arthur Ippen Award for outstanding achievements in hydraulic engineering. The American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental and Water Resources Institute (ASCE-EWRI) presented him with the 2004 award for the Best Practice paper in the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ("Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in Stepped Storm Waterway" by Chanson and Toombes 2002) and the 2018 Honorable Mention Paper Award for  "Minimum Specific Energy and Transcritical Flow in Unsteady Open-Channel Flow" by Castro-Orgaz and Chanson (2016) in the ASCE Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. The Institution of Civil Engineers (UK) presented him the 2017 Baker. Medal. Hubert Chanson edited further several books : "Fluvial, Environmental and Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering" (Mossa, Yasuda & Chanson 2004, Balkema), "Hydraulics. The Next Wave" (Chanson & Macintosh 2004, Engineers Australia), "Hydraulic Structures: a Challenge to Engineers and Researchers" (Matos & Chanson 2006, The University of Queensland), "Experiences and Challenges in Sewers: Measurements and Hydrodynamics" (Larrate & Chanson 2008, The University of Queensland), "Hydraulic Structures: Useful Water Harvesting Systems or Relics?" (Janssen & Chanson 2010, The University of Queensland), "Balance and Uncertainty: Water in a Changing World" (Valentine et al. 2011, Engineers Australia), "Hydraulic Structures and Society – Engineering Challenges and Extremes" (Chanson and Toombes 2014, University of Queensland), "Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures" (Chanson 2015, IAHR Monograph, CRC Press). He chaired the Organisation of the 34th IAHR World Congress held in Brisbane, Australia between 26 June and 1 July 2011. He chaired the Scientific Committee of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures held in Brisbane in June 2014. He chairs the Organisation of the 22nd Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference in Brisbane, Australia on 6-10 December 2020.
His Internet home page is http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans. He also developed a gallery of photographs website {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html} that received more than 2,000 hits per month since inception.

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Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic StructuresApplied Hydrodynamics Tidal boresApplied HydrodynamicsEnvironmental hydraulics of open channel flowHydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an IntroductionThe Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and SpillwaysThe Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an IntroductionAir bubble entrainment in turbulent shear flowsHydraulic design of stepped cascades, channels, weirs and spillways  McGraw-Hill Interamericana 13th Ippen award (IAHR)