Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Queensland, Australia
Research leader : Hubert CHANSON

Research Papers in Hydraulic Engineering La Grande 2 spillway, Canada
Postgraduate Research projects
Photographs in Hydraulic Engineering
Technical Webpages

Major Research Topics
    Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Structures
    Industrial Two-Phase Flows
    Estuarine Processes
    Aeration Technology and Water Quality Modelling
    Environmental Management and Sediment Transport
    Engineering History and Heritage
Research collaborations
Six most significant publications

ORCID: {http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2016-9650}
ResearcherID: {http://www.researcherid.com/rid/A-1194-2008}
Scopus Author ID: 7004495961
Google Scholar citations of Hubert CHANSON's works: {http://scholar.google.com.au/citations?user=3Mx-6g0AAAAJ&hl=en}

Video movies on YouTube
Physical Modelling of Air Bubble Entrainment in Vertical Planar Plunging Jets - {https://youtu.be/GcAiBD4LpwM}
Stepped Spillway Research - {https://youtu.be/j_AsUXD4D3M}
Tidal Bore Research at the University of Queensland - {https://youtu.be/q1ieo7fQ6X8}
Fish-friendly waterways and culverts - Integration of hydrodynamics and fish turbulence interplay & interaction - {https://youtu.be/GGWTWDOmoSQ}


Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Structures
Open channel flows are encountered in a wide range of applications from large rivers to roof gutters including irrigation channels. New research investigations include river turbulence, fluvial hydraulics, hydraulic jump flows, undular flows, weir overflow, stepped cascades, dropshafts, energy dissipators and supercritical flows. Applications to hydraulic structures cover high-head spillways, stepped chutes, rubber dams, stilling basins and water quality prediction (e.g. CHANSON 1995, Pergamon; CHANSON 1999, 2004, CHANSON 2004).
More about Rubber dams ... Spillway aeration devices ... Stepped spillways ... Embankment overtopping protection ... Culverts ... MEL weirs ...
Cunningham Creek dam (Australia, 1912) in December 1997
Cunningham Creek dam (Australia, 1912) in December 1997 (Courtesy of Mr and Mrs CHANSON)

Industrial Two-Phase Flows

In high-velocity turbulent flows, air bubbles are entrained at the free surface. This process (self-aeration) is caused by the turbulent velocity fluctuations acting next to the free surfaces. The presence of air within the flow increases the bulk of the flow, modifies the momentum shear layers and enhances the air-water gas transfer. The project is based upon new experimental investigations using large-scale experiments : water jets discharging into the atmosphere, high-velocity open channel flows, hydraulic jumps and plunging water jets. The results enable a better understanding of the fluid mechanics of free-surface air-water flows (CHANSON 1997, Academic Press). Applications include some optimisation of hydraulic structure design, mixing devices in chemical plants, firefighting equipment.
More on Air-water flows ... Spillway aeration devices ...
Plunging jet air bubble entrainment Air bubble entrainment by circular plunging jet, flow from top to bottom (V = 3.3 m/s)

Estuarine Processes

Estuarine processes are complicated phenomena that are in between traditional fluvial and coastal hydraulics. Present studies are focusing on turbulent mixing and turbulence characteristics in estuarine zone. A joint collaboration is underway with Japan to compare systematically the characteristics of shallow water bays and estuaries.
Coaztal engineering studies include the hydrodynamics of tidal bores, whirlpools and breaking waves.
Plunging breaking waves have a dominant role in the energy dissipation process. The breaking process is extremely energetic and associated with strong air bubble interactions. The energy radiation of long-period waves is a predominant source of energy in the offshore-onshore direction. The process is extremely important to understand coastal erosion and harbour protection. Two research collaborations are active with Taiwan and Japan.
Some results showed that air entrainment at plunging breakers is similar to bubble entrainment by plunging liquid jets. Further 'free' long waves may be generated near the coastline by the water level rise associated with the air entrainment.
More on Tidal bores ... Whirlpools ... Subtropical estuary ....
Eprapah Creek 

Aeration Technology and Water Quality Modelling

Most assessments of water quality in rivers and ocean are based on dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. Most dissolved oxygen is derived from the free surface aeration which occurs when air bubble clouds are entrained by breaking waves. For example, during storms in the ocean and during spillway releases at a dam. Air-water gas transfer across the bubble interface is predominant as the net surface area of thousands of entrained air bubbles is much greater than the area of the free-surface. New experimental investigations have been conducted to simulate different mechanisms of wave breaking and air bubble entrainment. The results enable a better understanding of the aeration mechanisms. The study is applied to water quality problems downstream of hydraulic structures, the greenhouse effect and ocean-atmosphere gas exchange processes.
More about Air entrainment on chutes spillways ...
Gold Creek dam operation in 1996 Gold Creek dam stepped spillway (Australia 1890)

Environmental Management and Sediment Transport

A series of studies are conducted to improve soil and land conservation, and reservoir management. A study of reservoir siltation in South-East Australia has highlighted rapid sedimentation of several reservoirs (e.g. Moore Creek, Korrumbyn Creek, Quipolly No. 1 reservoirs). The investigation suggest that improper land management practices and unsuitable decisions have been the main reasons. The results have direct implications to the community in terms of dam safety and reduction of soil degradation. Another collaborative project deals with the use of wetland to treat sewage and storm waters. Wetlands may be used as an environmental tool in place of and in conjunction with treatment plant. A pilot study conducted at Logan treatment plant is most encouraging.
More on Extreme reservoir siltation ...
Koorawatha weir (1911) in 1997

Engineering History and Heritage

Several studies are conducted in parallel to investigate the historical development of civil engineering and hydraulic structures. Current projects include the early developments of dams, reservoirs and water supply systems in Australia (from the early 1800s to 1950), the history of stepped cascades and chutes (from BC 1300 to today), the introduction of concrete in hydraulic structures during the 19th century. The results of the project bring new lights to present design techniques and trends. For example, for the design of stepped spillways, for the refurbishment of existing weirs and dams, with regards to reservoir siltation. One study is focused on the hydraulics of Roman water supply and aqueducts. An investigation of steep chutes and cascades along aqueducts has highlighted the presence of supercritical flows and hydraulic jumps. Further an unusual type of dissipation structures was used : the Roma dropshaft. Analytical and physical models of dropshaft operation are developed, and the study provides a better understanding of the aqueduct operation.
More about Rubber dams ...    Steel dams ...    History of arch dams ....
Gier aqueduct at Mornant (Lyon, France), June 1998

Research collaborations

Prof. S. AOKI (Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., Japan), Prof. C.J. APELT (UQ Civil Eng.), Dr K. BOLTON (Southern Cross Univ.), T. BRATTBERG, Dr R. BROWN (Q.U.T.) Dr CHEN M.J. (National Taiwan University), Dr P. COUSSOT (LMSGC-LCPC, France), Dr P.D. CUMMINGS (KBR), Dr S. FELDER (UNSW, Australia), J. FERRIS (Qld EPA), Dr C.E. FRANKLIN (UQ Biological Sciences), Dr C.A. GONZALEZ (Cardno), Dr C. GUALTIERI (Univ. Napoli, Italy), P. JAMES (Neutral Bay NSW), Dr S. JARNY (Univ. Poitiers, France), C. KOCH (Germany), Dr F. LARRARTE (IFFSTAR, France), Prof. LEE J.F. (National Cheng Kung Univ., Taiwan), Prof. P. LUBIN (TREFLE I2M, University of Bordeaux, France), Dr R. MANASSEH (CSIRO AFDL, Melbourne), Dr J.L. MARIE (ECL Ecully, France), Dr J.S. MONTES (University of Tasmania), Dr M. MOSSA (Tech. Univ. Bari, Italy), Prof. C. O'CONNOR (UQ Civil Eng.), Dr S. PAGLIARA (Univ. Pisa, Italy), Dr M. PFISTER (EPFL, Switzerland), Dr I. RAMSAY (Qld EPA), Dr M. TAKAHASHI (Nihon University), Dr L. TOOMBES (Connell Wagner), Dr M. TREVETHAN, Dr K. WARBURTON, late Prof. R.L. WHITMORE (UQ Mining Eng.), Dr E. WOLANSKI (AIMS, Townsville), Prof Y. YASUDA (Nihon University) ... 

Six most significant publications

CHANSON, H. (2014). "Applied Hydrodynamics: An Introduction." CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Leiden, The Netherlands, 448 pages & 21 video movies (ISBN 978-1-138-00093-3). (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H. (2011). "Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: Theory and Observations." World Scientific, Singapore, 220 pages (ISBN 9789814335416). (Table of Contents at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H. (2004). "Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows." Elsevier-Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 483 pages (ISBN 0 7506 6165 8). Order form
Chapter 1 : Introduction to open channel flows, pp. 1-9 (PDF version at EprintsUQ)
Chapter 5 : Diffusion: Basic Theory, pp. 65-74 (PDF version at EprintsUQ)

CHANSON, H. (2001). "The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and Spillways." Balkema, Lisse, The Netherlands (ISBN 90 5809 352 2). Order form. Corrections and Updates

CHANSON, H. (2004). "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction." Butterworth-Heinemann, 2nd edition, Oxford, UK, 630 pages (ISBN 0 7506 5978 5).
CHANSON, H. (1999). "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction." Butterworth-Heinemann, 1st edition, London, UK, 512 pages (ISBN 0 340 74067 1).
Spanish edition : "Hidraulica Del Flujo De Canales Abiertos", McGraw Hill Interamericana, División Universidad,  Columbia (ISBN: 958-410-256-7).
Chinese edition : Hydrology Bureau of Yellow River Conservancy Committee, March 2003 (ISBN 7-80621-529-8). Download leaflet.
CHANSON, H. (1997). "Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Shear Flows." Academic Press, London, UK, 401 pages (ISBN 0-12-168110-6).

Hubert CHANSON is aProfessor in Civil Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Fluid Mechanics at the University of Queensland, Australia. His research interests include design of hydraulic structures, experimental investigations of two-phase flows, applied hydrodynamics, hydraulic engineering, water quality modelling, environmental fluid mechanics, estuarine processes and natural resources. He has been an active consultant for both governmental agencies and private organisations. His publication record includes over 1200 international refereed papers and his work was cited over 6,500 times (WoS) to 22,500 times (Google Scholar) since 1990. His h-index is 43 (WoS), 47 (Scopus) and 74 (Google Scholar), and he is ranked among the 150 most cited researchers in civil engineering in Shanghai’s Global Ranking of Academics. Hubert Chanson is the author of twenty books, including "Hydraulic Design of Stepped Cascades, Channels, Weirs and Spillways" (Pergamon, 1995), "Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Shear Flows" (Academic Press, 1997), "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1st edition 1999, 2nd editon 2004), "The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and Spillways" (Balkema, 2001), "Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004), "Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: Theory And Observations" (World Scientific, 2011), "Applied Hydrodynamics: an Introduction" (CRC Press, 2014). He co-authored three further books "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists" (IPC Press, 2002), "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists. Student Edition" (IPC, 2006) and "Fish Swimming in Turbulent Waters. Hydraulics Guidelines to assist Upstream Fish Passage in Box Culverts" (CRC Press 2021). His textbook "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows: An Introduction" has already been translated into Spanish (McGraw-Hill Interamericana) and Chinese (Hydrology Bureau of Yellow River Conservancy Committee), and the second edition was published in 2004. In 2003, the IAHR presented him with the 13th Arthur Ippen Award for outstanding achievements in hydraulic engineering. The American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental and Water Resources Institute (ASCE-EWRI) presented him with the 2004 award for the Best Practice paper in the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ("Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in Stepped Storm Waterway" by Chanson and Toombes 2002), the 2018 Honorable Mention Paper Award for  "Minimum Specific Energy and Transcritical Flow in Unsteady Open-Channel Flow" by Castro-Orgaz and Chanson (2016) in the ASCE Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, and the 2020 Outstanding Reviewer Award. The Institution of Civil Engineers (UK) presented him the 2018 Baker Medal. In 2018, he was inducted a Fellow of the Australasian Fluid Mechanics Society. Hubert Chanson edited further several books : "Fluvial, Environmental and Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering" (Mossa, Yasuda & Chanson 2004, Balkema), "Hydraulics. The Next Wave" (Chanson & Macintosh 2004, Engineers Australia), "Hydraulic Structures: a Challenge to Engineers and Researchers" (Matos & Chanson 2006, The University of Queensland), "Experiences and Challenges in Sewers: Measurements and Hydrodynamics" (Larrate & Chanson 2008, The University of Queensland), "Hydraulic Structures: Useful Water Harvesting Systems or Relics?" (Janssen & Chanson 2010, The University of Queensland), "Balance and Uncertainty: Water in a Changing World" (Valentine et al. 2011, Engineers Australia), "Hydraulic Structures and Society – Engineering Challenges and Extremes" (Chanson and Toombes 2014, University of Queensland), "Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures" (Chanson 2015, IAHR Monograph, CRC Press). He chaired the Organisation of the 34th IAHR World Congress held in Brisbane, Australia between 26 June and 1 July 2011. He chaired the Scientific Committee of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures held in Brisbane in June 2014. He co-chaired the Organisation of the 22nd Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference held as a hybrid format in Brisbane, Australia on 6-10 December 2020.
 His Internet home page is http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans. He also developed a gallery of photographs website {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html} that received more than 2,000 hits per month since inception.

Back to Prof. Chanson's Home Page
Gallery of photographs
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This page was visited : xxx times between 21-10-2005 and June 2012.
Last updated on 24/12/2021
  Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures Applied Hydrodynamics: An Introduction 2014 Tidal boresApplied HydrodynamicsThe Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and SpillwaysEnvironmental hydraulics of open channel flowThe Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an IntroductionAir bubble entrainment in turbulent shear flowsHydraulic design of stepped cascades, channels, weirs and spillways  McGraw-Hill Interamericana 13th Ippen award (IAHR)Hydraulics of open channel flow (2nd edition)