The Tidal Bore of the Seine River, France
Le Mascaret de la Seine
by Hubert CHANSON (h.chanson@uq.edu.au)
M.E., ENSHM Grenoble, INSTN, PhD (Cant.), DEng (Qld), Eur.Ing., MIEAust., MIAHR, 13th Arthur Ippen awardee (IAHR)
School of Civil Engrg., Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Autralia
Presentation
Footnotes
References
Photographs
Related links
about Hubert Chanson


Presentation

Seine river mascaret at Quillebeuf A bore is a positive surge (1) of tidal origin. Tidal bores occur as the tidal flow turns to rising (e.g. TRICKER 1965, CHANSON 1999). Famous ones include the Hangchow (or Hangzhou) bore on the Qiantang river, the Amazon bore called pororoca, the tidal bore on the Seine river, the Hoogly (or Hooghly) bore on the Gange, the bore on the Mekong river. Smaller tidal bores occur on the Severn river near Gloucester, England, on the Trent river (aegir), on the Garonne and Dordogne rivers, France, at Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm, Cook Inlet (Alaska), the bores in the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia) like at Petitcodiac, tidal bores on the Styx river QLD and on the Daly river NT (Australia), the tidal bore called benak at Batang Lupar (Malaysia) (CHANSON 2001,2005).

The front of a positive surge absorbs random disturbances on both sides of the surge and this makes the positive surge stable and self-perpetuating. With appropriate boundary conditions, a tidal bore may travel long distances upsteam of the river mouth. For example, the tidal bore on the Pungue river (Mozambique) is still about 0.7 m high about 50 km upstream of the mouth and it may reach 80 km inland.


The Mascaret of the Seine river

One of the most famous tidal bores was the mascaret of the Seine river, France (2). A tidal bore may form for large tidal ranges in a converging channel with a rising river bed (forming a funnel shape). The bore occurs as the tidal flow turns to rising. The mascaret of the Seine river had had a sinister reputation  (3). For example, 112 ships were lost between Quilleboeuf and Villequier from 1789 to 1829. In the following 21 years, another 105 ships disappeared between Tancarville and Villequier (MALANDAIN 1988). The height of the bore front could reach up to 7.3 m and the bore front travelled at a celerity of about 2 to 10 m/s (BAZIN 1865, TRICKER 1965).

Seine river mascaret

The occurrence of the mascaret was not regular. Observed predominantly during large tides, its strength was a function of the sand bars (near Honfleur, Hode sur la Roque, la Roque sur Nez and le Nez du Quilleboeuf) and the bore could travel up to Rouen (nearly 80 km upstream). Following some river training around 1845-1850, the tidal bore disappeared until the end of 1858 when it re-appeared as strong as before. In the 1960s, the mascaret attracted a lot of tourists during the equinox tides, particularly at Caudebec-en-Caux where the bore amplitude was the greatest at the time (4). The mascaret nearly disappeared following the dredging of the Seine estuary and the new canal de Tancarville, completed in 1963 (5).

Near the mouth of the river (e.g. at Quilleboeuf), the Seine mascaret was a breaking bore (e.g. MALANDAIN 1988, p. 34). Further upstream the mascaret became an undular bore in the deeper sections of the river while a breaking front was observed near the banks.
 

Footnotes

(1) A surge is a sudden change of flow depth in an open channel (i.e. abrupt increase or decrease in depth). An abrupt increase in flow depth is called a positive surge while a sudden decrease in depth is termed a negative surge. A positive surge looks like a moving hydraulic jump. Its flow properties may be solved by applying the momentum principle to the unsteady flow based upon a quasi-steady flow situation analogy (CHANSON 1999, pp. 67-71).

(2) The word mascaret is the French translation of tidal bore. The front of the tidal bore was locally called 'la barre'. It is thought that the word 'mascaret' comme from Southern France (langue d'oc). Translations of the word tidal bore include : Tidal bore (English) = Mascaret (French) = Pororoca (Portuguese, Brazil) = Aegir (or eagre) (Celtic).

Risle river mascaret

(3) In his memorable poem "A Villequier", Victor Hugo mourned the drowning of his daughter Leopoldine and her husband in the Seine. However Leopoldine was not drowned in a tidal bore. The day of the accident was during neap tides and there was no "mascaret" (Maximum tidal range for 1843). Further her husband was from a family of ship pilots who knew well the mascaret phenomenon. For more information see  {http://www.sequana-normandie.com/}.

(4) Interestingly, the bore was the strongest near Quilleboeuf in the 1800s, at least until 1855 (MALANDAIN 1988). Around 1895, it was the strongest between Saint-Léonard and La Mailleraye.

(5) Since 1964 the mascaret was occasionally observed, although weaker than in the past : on 28 March 1967 between Sahurs and La Bouille (Paris-Normandie, 29 Mar. 1967), on 7 September and 5 October 1971 at Caudebec-en-Caux (Le-Havre-Presse, 6 Oct. 1971). In 1971, the occurrence of the mascaret was a combination of large tides (coefficients 115-116 in October) and a lower river discharge caused by a long drought period.
 

Photographs

The Seine river tidal bore
Photo No. 1 : Seine river tidal bore at Caudebec-en Caux around 1960, view from the bac (ferry) looking at the right bank (Photograph by Raymond HUON, Courtesy of Sequana-Normandie).
Photo No. 2 : Bac de Caudebec-en Caux facing the mascaret in 1958, view from the right bank (boats and ships had to leave the wharf to face the  mascaret in a similar way) (Copyright: Alain HUON, Courtesy of Sequana-Normandie).
Photo No. 3 : the passage of the mascaret in the 1930s, photograph taken at the ramp of the ferry at Yainville (France), right bank, near the old power station (Courtesy of G. FROMAGER).
Photo No. 4 : after the passage of the mascaret looking upsteam, view from right bank between Yainville and Jumieges, looking toward  Heurteauville; Note the quite river upstream of the bore (on the left top) (Courtesy of Sequana-Normandie).
Photo No. 5 : the mascaret at Aizier, near Quilleboeuf (view from left bank) (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN).
Photo No. 6 : the mascaret at Quilleboeuf (Photo I. Hernault, Le Havre) (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN).
Photo No. 7 : the mascaret at Villequier, ancient gravure (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN).
Photo No. 8 : the mascaret on the Risle, a small tributary of the Seine river at Pont-Audemer (Collection A. Renard, editeur, Pont-Audemer) (Courtesy of J.J. MALANDAIN).

Seine river mascaret

Other tidal bores

Mascaret on the Dordogne river, at Vayres (au Port de Saint Pardon, France) : looking in the bore direction, looking upstream (Courtesy of Fabrice COLAS). The tidal bore (mascaret) on the 27 Sept. 2000 : Photo No. 1 : arriving bore; Photo No. 2 : kayacks and surfers; Photo No. 3 : close to St Pardon; Photo No. 4 : in front of St Pardon. Tidal bore on the Dordogne river on 21 Feb. 2004 : Photo No. 1 : arriving bore (surge Froude number about 1.05 to 1.1) at St Pardon; Photo No. 2 : bore moving upstream towards Vayres. Photo No. 3 : fisherman catching lamproie fish with net few minutes prior the bore arrival between Vayres and St Pardon. Tidal  bore of the Dordogne river on 4 July 2008 : Photo No. 1 : view from Saint Pardon : very weak undular surge. Photo No. 2 : looking upstream towards Vayres. Menhir de Pierrefitte : neolithic mounument located at Chateau Saint Martial, on the right bank next to the old Pierrefitte harbour which serviced Saint Emilion up the 16th century. Tidal bore on 20 July 2008 at sunrise : Photo No. 1 : Dordogne river in front of Port de Saint Pardon before the tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : ripple in the channel centreline marking the tidal bore front, view from the left bank. Photo No. 3 : wave breaking next to the left bank. Photo No. 4 : whelps 60 seconds after the tidal bore front passage. Tidal bore on 21 July 2008 at sunrise : Photo No. 1 : tidal bore front approching the jetty of Saint Pardon at 07:03. Photo No. 2 : wave breaking at the jetty during the wave front passage. Photo No. 3 : wave breaking on the jetty about 58 s after the tidal bore front passage. Tidal bore on 2 September 2008 evening : Photo No. 1: View from Port de Saint Pardon, looking downstream. Photo No. 2 : surfers in front of Port de Saint Pardon. Photo No. 3 : surfers on the second wave crest passing in front of Port de Saint Pardon.
Tidal bore near Truro (Bay of Fundy, Canada) :looking upstream, detail of bank erosion (Courtesy of Larry SMITH). Photo No. 3 : arriving tidal bore on the Salmon river on 22 Sept. 2001 (Courtesy of Dr M.R. GOURLAY). Photo No. 4 :  sideview of tidal bore on the Salmon river on 22 Sept. 2001 (Courtesy of Dr M.R. GOURLAY) 

Severn river (England) : Photo No. 1 : at Awre where the estuary is wide and shallow (Courtesy of Professor D.H. PEREGRINE) - Photo No. 2 : further upriver where the Severn river is deeper and narrower (Courtesy of Professor D.H. PEREGRINE). 

Hangzhou boreThe tidal bore on the Qiantang River near Hangzhou, China, also known as the Hangchow or Hangzou bore: Photo No.1: Qiantang River bore at Hangzhou CBD City Balcony on 9 October 2014. Photo No.2: tidal bore at Qilimiao downstream of Yanguan on 11 October 2014. Photo No. 3: tidal bore between Yanguan and Laoyanchang on 11 October 2014. Photo No. 4: breaking tidal bore and roller between between Yanguan and Laoyanchang on 11 October 2011. Photo No. 5: tidal bore reflection at Laoyanchang on 11 October 2011. Photo No. 6 : tidal bore impact on sluice gate structure at Jiuxi on 11 October 2014; in the foreground, the reflected wave overtopped the river bank, flooding the nearby arterial and causing some traffic accident and traffic jam. Photo No. 7: tidal bore at Meilvba overtopping a spur dyke on 12 October 2014. Photo No. 8: tidal bore impact on the sea wall at Xinchang on 13 October 2014; the bore was reflected on the wall and the reflection came back about 40 minutes later. Photo No. 9: tidal bore warning sign at Meilvba in October 2014; in this area, the embankent dyke is regularly overtopped. Photo No. 11 : view from the left bank (Courtesy of Dr J. Eric JONES); Photo No. 12 : another detailed view (Courtesy of Dr J. Eric JONES). 

The tidal bore of the Petitcodiac river, near Moncton (Bay of Fundy, Canada). Photo No. 1 : in spring 1908? near Moncton, the bore height being about 1 to 1.5 m (Courtesy of the Petitcodiac Riverkeeper) - Photo No. 2 : on 23 Mar. 2000, the bore height was estimated to be about 0.5 m. The river discharge was larger than usual because of snow melt (Courtesy of the Petitcodiac Riverkeeper). 

Tidal bore on the Couesnon river (France). The tidal bore is significantly weaker since the construction of an upstream barrage. Photo No. 1 : approaching bore on 7 March 2004 around 18:20. Photo No. 2 : bore seen from the Tour de Gabriel on 7 March 2004 (bore flowing from right to left). Photo No. 3 : Couesnon river at low tide on 4 Feb. 2004, looking upstream from Mont Saint Michel monastery.

Tidal bore of the Sélune river, Baie du Mont Saint Michel (France).  Tidal bore on 7 April 2004 : tidal range = 13.75 m (highest tidal range for 2004). Photo No. 1 : Sélune river estuary, viewed from left bank at Roche-Torin at sunrise on 7/4/04 beofre tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore seen from Roche-Torin far away in front of Ile de Tombelaine with seagulls (white dots) in front of the bore. Photo No. 3 : advancing tidal bore in front of Pointe du Grouin du Sud.  Photo No. 4 : advancing bore front viewed from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 5 : advancing bore front viewed from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 6 : advancing bore front just in front of Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 7 : tidal bore advancing upstream, seen from Roche-Torin on 7/4/04. Photo No. 8 : approaching tidal bore, one hour later, upstream of Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 9 : approaching tidal bore, one hour later, upstream of Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 10 : Sélune river tidal bore approaching Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04. Photo No. 11 : Sélune river tidal bore passing below Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) at Pontaubault on7/4/04; note the bridge pier "knife" shape; note also that the bore became an undular bore just downstream of the bridge, possibly because of a local scour hole. Photo No. 12 : strong current below Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge) on 7/4/04 after the tidal bore passage, view from left bank looking upstream. Tidal bore on 2 August 2008: tidal range = 12.65 m. Photo No. 1 : Sélune river tidal bore at Roche Torin on 2/8/08 at sunset, viewed from the left bank (bore propagation from left to right). Photo No. 2 : tidal bore propagation past Roche Torin on 2/8/08. Photo No. 3 : tidal bore past Roche Torin on 2/8/08. Photo No. 4 : Sélune river tidal bore at Pontaubault on 2/8/08 at sunset, about 1 hour after flowing past Roche Torin. Photo No. 5 : Sélune river tidal bore at Pontaubault on 2/8/08, approaching the histoical Pont Aubaud (15th century bridge); note the undular nature of the tidal bore and the whelps (éteules). Photo No. 6 : interactions of the whelps (éteules) with the bridge piers shortly after the tidal bore front passage on 2/8/08. Tidal bore on 3 August 2008: tidal range = 12.65 m. Photo No. 1 : Sélune river tidal bore at Roche Torin on 3/8/08 shortly after sunrise, viewed from the left bank (bore propagation from left to right). Photo No. 2 : tidal bore propagation at Roche Torin on 3/8/08.
    Read Coastal Observations: The Tidal Bore of the Sélune River, Baie du Mont Saint Michel, France (Shore & Beach, 2004, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 14-16)
Tidal bore of the Garonne river, France. Tidal bore on 5 July 2008 at Arcins (Latresnes). Photo No. 1 : tidal bore entering the Arcins channel. Photo No. 2 : incoming undular bore in the Arcins channel around 6:20am looking downstream. Photo No. 3 : whelps (eteules) behind the bore front shaking the pontoon and jetty. Tidal bore on 5 July 2008 at Langoiran. Photo No. 1 : very weak bore with some was breaking next to the left bank about 7:05am, while there was no bore in the main channel nor next to the right bank. Tidal bore on 6 July 2008 at Arcins (Latresnes). Photo No. 1 : looking downstream at the incoming bore around 7:10am; note the small ripple formed by the tidal bore. Photo No. 2 : undular bore passing in front of the photographer. Photo No. 3 : propagating bore; note the strong mixing and reflection in the inlet in the foreground. Tidal bore on 19 July 2008 at Podensac.Photo No. 1 : large-scale vortical structures at the free-surface on the channel centreline on 19 July 2008 at end of ebb tide flow (18:30) shortly before tidal bore arrival. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore propagation next to left bank looking dowsntream at 18:43. Photo No. 3 : details of the bore front impact on the left bank. Tidal bore on 20 July 2008 at Langoiran. Photo No. 1 : surfer riding the bore front next to the left bank. Photo No. 2 : surfer getting back to the boat after the ride. Tidal  bore on 2 September 2008 at Podensac. Photo No. 1 : Advancing bore with surfers. Photo No. 2 : surfers next to the left bank. Tidal bore on 3 September 2008 at Baurech. Photographs taken from a kayack surfing the Garonne River bore. Photo No. 1 : looking towards the left bank while riding ahead of the first wave crest. Photo No. 2 : looking towards the right bank at several kayacks riding ahead the first wave crest. Photo No. 3 : riding the whelps behind the bore front.
Tidal bores in Bretagne (Brittany), France. (1) Tidal bore of the Arguenon River, Bretagne (Brittany). Photo No. 1 : tidal bore at Les Pierre Sonantes, le Guildo on 15 Oct. 2008. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore betwen Le Guildo and Créhen. (2) Tidal bore of the Frémur Creek, Côtes d'Armor, Bretagne (Brittany). Photo No. 1 : tidal bore at Port-à-la Duc on  15 Oct. 2008. Photo No. 2 : tidal bore upstream of Port-à-la Duc on  16 Oct. 2008.

Related links

{http://www.sequana-normandie.com/} Sequana-Normandie
{http://www.ac-rouen.fr/ecoles/saint-ouen/labarre.htm} Ecole de Saint-Ouen, Rouen (France)
{http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html#Tidal bores, mascaret, pororoca} Gallery of photographs
{http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/civ3140.html#Surges} Explanations on tidal bores
{http://boreridersclub.tripod.com/Club.html} Severn Bore Rider Club (UK)
{http://www.did.sarawak.gov.my/benak/benak_gallery.htm} Tidal Bore at Batang Lupar (Malaysia)
{http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/tid_bore.html}
Tidal bores, mascaret, pororoca. Myths, fables and reality

Ferry awaiting the bore mid-river

References

BAZIN, H. (1865). "Recherches Expérimentales sur la Propagation des Ondes." ('Experimental Research on Wave Propagation.') Mémoires présentés par divers savants à l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, France, Vol. 19, pp. 495-644 (in French).
CHANSON, H. (1999). "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction." Butterworth-Heinemann, London, UK, 512 pages (ISBN 0 340 74067 1).
 CHANSON, H. (2001). "The Role of Environmental Fluid Mechanics in Water System Management." Proc. 1st Intl Conf International Federation for Environmental Management System IFEMS'01, 30 Jan.-2 Feb., Tsurugi, Japan, Keynote lecture. (download PREPRINT)
CHANSON, H. (2001). "Flow Field in a Tidal Bore : a Physical Model." Proc. 29th IAHR Congress, Beijing, China, Theme E, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, G. LI Ed., pp. 365-373 (ISBN 7-302-04676-X/TV). (CD-ROM, Tsinghua University Press, ISBN 7-900637-10-9.) (download PDF file)
CHANSON, H. (2003). "Mixing and Dispersion in Tidal Bores. A Review." Proc. Intl Conf. on Estuaries & Coasts ICEC 2003, Hangzhou, China, Nov. 8-11, Intl Research & Training Center on Erosion & Sedimentation Ed., Vol. 2, pp. 763-769 (ISBN 7 900 662 67 7/G.79). (Download PDF File)
CHANSON, H. (2005). "Mascaret, Aegir, Pororoca, Tidal Bore. Quid ? Où? Quand? Comment? Pourquoi ?" Jl La Houille Blanche, No. 3, pp. 103-114 (ISSN 0018-6368) (in French). (Download PDF file)
DONNELLY, C., and CHANSON, H. (2002). "Environmental impact of a Tidal Bore on Tropical Rivers." Proc. 5th Intl River Management Symp., Brisbane, Australia, Sept., 3-6, 9 pages. (Download PDF File)
MALANDAIN, J.J. (1988). "La Seine au Temps du Mascaret." ('The Seine River at the Time of the Mascaret.') Le Chasse-Marée, No. 34, pp. 30-45 (in French).
TRICKER, R.A.R. (1965). "Bores, Breakers, Waves and Wakes." American Elsevier Publ. Co., New York, USA.

Bibliography

BARTSCH-WINKLER, S., and LYNCH, D.K. (1988). "Catalog of Worldwide Tidal Bore Occurrences and Characteristics." US Geological Survey Circular, No. 1022, 17 pages.
BAZIN, H. (1865). "Recherches Expérimentales sur la Propagation des Ondes." ('Experimental Research on Wave Propagation.') Mémoires présentés par divers savants à l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, France, Vol. 19, pp. 495-644 (in French).
CHANSON, H. (2004). "Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows." Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK (ISBN 0 7506 6165 8).
CHANSON, H. (2004). "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction." Butterworth-Heinemann, 2nd edition, Oxford, UK (ISBN 0 7506 5978 5).
CHANSON, H. (2004). "Mixing and Dispersion Role of Tidal Bores." in "Fluvial, Environmental & Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering", Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands, Proc. Intl Workshop on State-of-the-Art Hydraulic Engineering, 16-19 Feb. 2004, Bari, Italy, M. MOSSA, Y. YASUDA and H. CHANSON Ed., pp. 223-232 (ISBN 04 1535 899 X). (Download PDF file) (Leaflet and Order Form)
CHANSON, H. (2004). "Coastal Observations: The Tidal Bore of the Sélune River, Baie du Mont Saint Michel, France." Shore & Beach, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 14-16 (ISSN 0037-4237). (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H. (2005). "Physical Modelling of the Flow Field in an Undular Tidal Bore." Jl of Hyd. Res., IAHR, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 234-244 (ISSN 0022-1686). (Download PDF file)
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CHANSON, H. (2011). "Turbulent Shear Stresses in Hydraulic Jumps and Decelerating Surges: An Experimental Study." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 180-189 & 2 videos (DOI: 10.1002/esp.2031 ) (ISSN 0197-9337). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
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CHANSON, H., and TOI, Y.H. (2013). "Breaking tidal bore: comparison between field data and laboratory experiments." Proc. 21ème Congrès Français de Mécanique CFM 2013, Bordeaux, France, 26-30 Aug., Paper R3SJ46ER, 6 pages (USB) (in English). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and TOI, Y.H. (2015). "Physical Modelling of Breaking Tidal Bores: Comparison with Prototype Data." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 264-273 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2014.989458) (ISSN 0022-1686). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
DOCHERTY, N.J., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Physical Modelling of Unsteady Turbulence in Breaking Tidal Bores." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 138, No. 5, pp. 412-419 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000542) (ISSN 0733-9429). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
DONNELLY, C., and CHANSON, H. (2005). "Environmental Impact of Undular Tidal Bores in Tropical Rivers." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 481-494 (ISSN 1567-7419). (PDF file at UQeSpace)  (Download PDF file)
FAVRE, H. (1935). "Etude Théorique et Expérimentale des Ondes de Translation dans les Canaux Découverts." ('Theoretical and Experimental Study of Travelling Surges in Open Channels.') Dunod, Paris, France (in French).
FURGEROT, L. (2014). "Propriétés hydrodynamiques du mascaret et de son influence sur la dynamique sédimentaire. Une approche couplée en canal et in situ (estuaire de la Sée, Baie du Mont Saint Michel)." (Hydrodynamic characteristics of tidal bores and impact on sedimentary processes. A combination of laboratory experimenta and field studies (Sée estuary, Bay of Mont Saint Michel).') Ph.D. thesis, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, laboratory M2C, Caen, France, 386 pages.
KEEVIL, C.E., CHANSON, H., and REUNGOAT, D. (2015)." Fluid Flow and Sediment Entrainment in the Garonne River Bore and Tidal Bore Collision." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 40, No. 12, pp. 1574-1586 (DOI: 10.1002/esp.3735) (ISSN 0197-9337). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
KHEZRI, N. (2014). "Modelling Turbulent Mixing and Sediment Process Beneath Tidal Bores: Physical and Numerical Investigations." Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 267 pages. (PDF file at UQeSpace)
KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Inception of Bed Load Motion beneath a Bore." Geomorphology, Vol. 153-154, pp. 39-47 (DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.02.006) (ISSN 0169-555X). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Sediment Inception under Breaking Tidal Bores." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 41, pp. 49-53 (DOI 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2012.02.010) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace) (Digital appendix: video movie)
KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Undular and Breaking Tidal Bores on Fixed and Movable Gravel Beds." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 353-363 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2012.686200) (ISSN 0022-1686). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Simultaneous Measurements of Turbulent Velocity and Sediment Motion under Tidal Bores." Proc. 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China, 8-13 Sept., WANG Z., LEE, J.H.W., GAO, J., and CAO S. Editors, Paper A10216, 10 pages (ISBN 978-7-302-33544-3). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
KOCH, C., and CHANSON, H. (2005). "An Experimental Study of Tidal Bores and Positive Surges: Hydrodynamics and Turbulence of the Bore Front." Report No. CH56/05, Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, July, 170 pages (ISBN 1864998245). (Download PDF file) (also PDF Version at EprintsUQ)
KOCH, C., and CHANSON, H. (2006). "Unsteady Turbulence Characteristics in an Undular Bore." Proc. International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics River Flow 2006, Lisbon, Portugal, 6-8 Sept., Topic A1, R.M.L. FERREIRA, E.C.T.L. ALVES, J.G.A.B. LEAL, and A.H. CARDOSO Eds., Balkema Publ., Taylor & Francis Group, London, Vol. 1, pp. 79-88 (ISBN 0 415 40815 6). (PDF version at EprintsUQ) (Preprint)
KOCH, C., and CHANSON, H. (2008). "Turbulent Mixing beneath an Undular Bore Front." Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 999-1007 (DOI: 10.2112/06-0688.1) (ISSN 0749-0208). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
KOCH, C., and CHANSON, H. (2009). "Turbulence Measurements in Positive Surges and Bores." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 29-40 (DOI: 10.3826/jhr.2009.2954) (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Breaking Bore: Physical Observations of Roller Characteristics." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 65, pp. 24-29 (DOI: 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2015.02.008) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Unsteady Turbulence during the Upstream Propagation of Undular and Breaking Tidal Bores: an Experimental Investigation." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH98/15, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 235 pages & 4 video movies (ISBN 978 1 74272 135 4). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Video movies at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Turbulent Advances of a Breaking Bore: Preliminary Physical Experiments." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 62, pp. 70-77 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2014.12.002) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Coupling between Free-surface Fluctuations, Velocity Fluctuations and Turbulent Reynolds Stresses during the Upstream Propagation of Positive Surges, Bores and Compression Waves." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 695-719 & digital appendix (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-015-9438-8) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Digital appendix) (Reprint at UQeSpace)
LUBIN, P., GLOCKNER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2010). "Numerical Simulation of a Weak Breaking Tidal Bore." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 119-121 (DOI: 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2009.09.008) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
MONTES, J.S. (1979). "Undular Hydraulic Jump - Discussion." Jl of Hyd. Div., ASCE, Vol. 105, No. HY9, pp. 1208-1211.
MONTES, J.S. (1986). "A Study of the Undular Jump Profile." Proc. 9th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference AFMC, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 148-151.
MONTES, J.S., and CHANSON, H. (1998). "Characteristics of Undular Hydraulic Jumps. Results and Calculations." Jl of Hyd. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 192-205 (ISSN 0733-9429). (download PDF file)
MOUAZE, D., CHANSON, H., and SIMON, B. (2010). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Sélune River in the Bay of Mont Saint Michel (September 2010)." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH81/10, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 72 pages (ISBN 9781742720210). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
PAN, D.Z., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Physical Modelling of Tidal Bore Dyke Overtopping: Implication on Individuals' Safety." Proc. 36th IAHR World Congress, The Hague, The Netherlands, 27 June-3 July, Paper 78972, 8 pages (ISBN 978-90-824846-0-1). (PDF file)
PEREGRINE, D.H. (1966). "Calculations of the Development of an Undular Bore." Jl Fluid Mech., Vol. 25, Part 2, pp. 321-330.
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and CAPLAIN, B. (2012). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Garonne River at Arcins (June 2012)." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH89/12, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 121 pages (ISBN 9781742720616). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
REUNGOAT, F., CAPLAIN, B., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Garonne River after a Recent Flood." Proc. Coastal Dynamics 2013, Arcachon, France, 24-28 June, pp. 1309-1318. (Record at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and CAPLAIN, B. (2014). "Sediment Processes and Flow Reversal in the Undular Tidal Bore of the Garonne River (France)." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 591–616 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-013-9319-y) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and KEEVIL, C.E. (2014). "Turbulence, Sedimentary Processes and Tidal Bore Collision in the Arcins Channel, Garonne River (October 2013)." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH94/14, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 145 pages (ISBN 9781742721033). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
REUNGOAT, D., CHANSON, H., and KEEVIL, C.E. (2015). "Field Measurements of Unsteady Turbulence in a Tidal Bore: the Garonne River in October 2013." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 291-301 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2015.1021717) (ISSN 0022-1686). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
RULIFSON, R.A., and TULL, K.A. (1999). "Striped Bass Spawning in a Tidal Bore River : the Shubenacadie Estuary, Atlantic Canada." Trans. American Fisheries Soc., Vol. 128, pp. 613-624.
SIMON, B. (2014). "Effects of Tidal Bores on Turbulent Mixing: a Numerical and Physical Study in Positive Surges." Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 259 pages & 7 movies. (PDF file at UQeSpace)
SIMON, B., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Turbulence Measurements in Tidal Bore-like Positive Surges over a Rough Bed." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH90/12, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 176 pages (ISBN 9781742720685). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TESSIER, B., and TERWINDT, J.H.J. (1994). "An Example of Soft-Sediment Deformations in an intertidal Environment - The Effect of a Tidal Bore". Comptes-Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série II, Vol. 319, No. 2, Part 2, pp. 217-233.
TOI, Y.H., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Turbulent Mixing in Breaking Tidal Bores: Comparison between Field and Laboratory Data." Proc. 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China, 8-13 Sept., WANG Z., LEE, J.H.W., GAO, J., and CAO S. Editors, Paper A10201, 10 pages (ISBN 978-7-302-33544-3). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
WOLANSKI, E., WILLIAMS, D., SPAGNOLA, S., and CHANSON, H. (2004). "Undular Tidal Bore Dynamics in the Daly Estuary, Northern Australia." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 629-636 (ISSN 0302-3524). (Download PDF file)
YEOW, S.C., WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2016)."Effect of a large bed roughness on positive surge propagation in canals." Proceedings of 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, B. CROOKSTON & B. TULLIS Editors, 27-30 June, Portland OR, USA, pp. 50-60 (DOI: 10.15142/T3600628160853) (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4). (PDF file) (Link at USU) (ISHS2016 proceedings) (Reprint at UQeSpace)

Acknowledgments

McGraw-Hill Interamericana Photographs courtesy of Sequana-Normandie (Caudebec-en-Caux, France), Jean-Jacques MALANDAIN, Dr Eric JONES, Professor Howell PEREGRINE, Petitcodiac Riverkeeper.

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Hubert CHANSON is a Professor in Civil Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Fluid Mechanics at the University of Queensland, Australia. His research interests include design of hydraulic structures, experimental investigations of two-phase flows, applied hydrodynamics, hydraulic engineering, water quality modelling, environmental fluid mechanics, estuarine processes and natural resources. He has been an active consultant for both governmental agencies and private organisations. His publication record includes over 700 international refereed papers and his work was cited over 2,900 times (WoS) to 11,000 times (Google Scholar) since 1990. His h-index is 29 (WoS), 31 (Scopus) and 52 (Google Scholar). Hubert Chanson is the author of twenty books, including "Hydraulic Design of Stepped Cascades, Channels, Weirs and Spillways" (Pergamon, 1995), "Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Shear Flows" (Academic Press, 1997), "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow : An Introduction" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1st edition 1999, 2nd editon 2004), "The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and Spillways" (Balkema, 2001), "Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows" (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004), "Tidal Bores, Aegir, Eagre, Mascaret, Pororoca: Theory And Observations" (World Scientific, 2011) and "Applied Hydrodynamics: an Introduction" (CRC Press, 2014). He co-authored two further books "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists" (IPC Press, 2002) and "Fluid Mechanics for Ecologists. Student Edition" (IPC, 2006). His textbook "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction" has already been translated into Spanish (McGraw-Hill Interamericana) and Chinese (Hydrology Bureau of Yellow River Conservancy Committee), and the second edition was published in 2004. In 2003, the IAHR presented him with the 13th Arthur Ippen Award for outstanding achievements in hydraulic engineering. The American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental and Water Resources Institute (ASCE-EWRI) presented him with the 2004 award for the Best Practice paper in the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ("Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in Stepped Storm Waterway" by Chanson and Toombes 2002). Hubert Chanson edited further several books : "Fluvial, Environmental and Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering" (Mossa, Yasuda & Chanson 2004, Balkema), "Hydraulics. The Next Wave" (Chanson & Macintosh 2004, Engineers Australia), "Hydraulic Structures: a Challenge to Engineers and Researchers" (Matos & Chanson 2006, The University of Queensland), "Experiences and Challenges in Sewers: Measurements and Hydrodynamics" (Larrate & Chanson 2008, The University of Queensland), "Hydraulic Structures: Useful Water Harvesting Systems or Relics?" (Janssen & Chanson 2010, The University of Queensland), "Balance and Uncertainty: Water in a Changing World" (Valentine et al. 2011, Engineers Australia), "Hydraulic Structures and Society – Engineering Challenges and Extremes" (Chanson and Toombes 2014, University of Queensland), "Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures" (Chanson 2015, IAHR Monograph, CRC Press). He chaired the Organisation of the 34th IAHR World Congress held in Brisbane, Australia between 26 June and 1 July 2011. He chaired the Scientific Committee of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures held in Brisbane in June 2014.
 His Internet home page is http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans. He also developed a gallery of photographs website {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html} that received more than 2,000 hits per month since inception.

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Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic StructuresApplied Hydrodynamics Tidal boresApplied HydrodynamicsEnvironmental hydraulics of open channel flowHydraulics of open channel flow (2nd edition)The Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and SpillwaysThe Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an IntroductionAir bubble entrainment in turbulent shear flowsHydraulic design of stepped cascades, channels, weirs and spillwaysFluid Mechanics for Ecologists  McGraw-Hill Interamericana 13th Ippen award (IAHR)