Postgraduate Research Projects in Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Engineering
supervised by Professor Hubert CHANSON



Modelling Positive Surge Propagation in Rectangular and Non-Rectangular Channel

Student : Rui SHI
...

Study period : 2018-
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON, and Xinqian LENG
A tidal bore is a surge of waters propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising and the flood tide rushes into a funnel shaped river mouth with shallow waters This study will investigate the unsteady turbulent mixing induced by tidal bores in rectangular and irregular channels, including the coupling between instantaneous free-surface and velocity fluctuations, air bubble entrainment as well as the unsteady three-dimensional flow patterns. Detailed air-water flow measurements will be conducted in a breaking bore roller, in a large-size channel. Overall the project aims to gain a greater understanding of the impact of tidal bores on the eco-systems, on the sedimentary processes and on the dispersion of particulates and scalars in tidal-bore affected estuaries.
Publications derived from the project
    SHI, R., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2020). "On Optical Flow Techniques applied to Breaking Surges." Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 72, Paper 101710, 18 pages & Supplementary material (4 pages) (DOI: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2020.101710) (ISSN 0955-5986). (PDF file) (Postprint at IQeSpace)
    SHI, R., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2020). "On Turbulence and Turbulent Events in a Breaking Bore." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 104, Paper 103478, 4 pages & Supplementary material (4 pages) (DOI: 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2020.103478) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
   WUTHRICH, D., SHI, R., and CHANSON, H. (2020). "Physical Study of the 3-dimensional Characteristics and Free-surface Properties of a Breaking Roller in Bores and Surges." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 112, Paper 109980, 13 pages, Supplementary material (4 pages) & 6 video movies (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2019.109980) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace) (Video movies at UQeSpace) (Supplementary material at UQeSpace)


   WÜTHRICH, D., SHI, R., and CHANSON, H. (2020). "Sensitivity Analysis in Air-Water Measurements under Highly Unsteady Flow Conditions in a Strong Bore." Proceedings of 22nd Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference AFMC2020, Brisbane, Australia, 7-10 December, Editors H. CHANSON and R. BROWN, Paper 16, 4 pages (DOI: 10.14264/dd7d0ca) (ISBN 978-1-74272-341-9). (Deposit at UQeSpace)
   SHI, R., WÜTHRICH, D., and CHANSON, H. (2020). "Introducing a single bubble event detection technique for air-water interfacial velocity measurements in unsteady turbulent bore." Proceedings of 22nd Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference AFMC2020, Brisbane, Australia, 7-10 December, Published by The University of Queensland, Editors H. CHANSON and R. BROWN, Paper 20, 4 pages (DOI: 10.14264/eb69fc1) (ISBN 978-1-74272-341-9). (Deposit at UQeSpace)
   SHI, R., WÜTHRICH, D., and CHANSON, H. (2020). "Applications of Optical Flow Technique in Air-Water Flows." Proceedings of 22nd Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference AFMC2020, Brisbane, Australia, 7-10 December, Published by The University of Queensland, Editors H. CHANSON and R. BROWN, Paper 21, 4 pages (DOI: 10.14264/d44ca31) (ISBN 978-1-74272-341-9). (Deposit at UQeSpace)
  SHI, R., WUTHRICH, D., and CHANSON (2020). "Image-based Measurements of Air-water Flow Properties in Plunging Air-water Jets." Proceedings of the 8th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures ISHS2020, 12-15 May 2020, Santiago, Chile, R. JANSSEN and H. CHANSON Editors, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 10 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2020.579) (ISBN 978-1-74272-309-9). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
  WUTHRICH, D., SHI, R., WANG, H., and CHANSON (2020). "Three-dimensional air-water flow properties of a hydraulic jump with low Froude numbers and relatively high Reynolds numbers." Proceedings of the 8th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures ISHS2020, 12-15 May 2020, Santiago, Chile, R. JANSSEN and H. CHANSON Editors, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 10 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2020.583) (ISBN 978-1-74272-309-9). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
   WUTHRICH, D., SHI, R., and CHANSON (2020). "Air-water flow properties in breaking bores and stationary hydraulic jumps with the same Froude number - Analogies and dissimilarities." Proceedings of the 8th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures ISHS2020, 12-15 May 2020, Santiago, Chile, R. JANSSEN and H. CHANSON Editors, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 10 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2020.584) (ISBN 978-1-74272-309-9). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
  SHI, R., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2019). "Turbulent Mixing and Turbulent Events in Breaking Bores." Proceedings of the 38th IAHR World Congress, Panama City, 1-6 Sept., IAHR Publication, Lucas CALVO Ed., pp. 3672-3680 (DOI: 10.3850/38WC092019-0279) (ISSN 2521-7119 (Print) - ISSN 2521-716X (Online) - ISSN 2521-7127). (PDF file) (Deposit at UQeSpace)
 
Sediment Processes under Tidal Bores

Student : Youkai LI
LI, Y. (2020). "Hydrodynamics of tidal bores: turbulent propagation and sediment transport." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Queensland, School of Civil Engineering, Brisbane, Australia, 308 pages & Supplementary materials (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2020.671). (Deposit at UQeSpace)

Study period : 2015-2019
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON, Xinqian LENG, and Hang WANG
A tidal bore is a hydrodynamic discontinuity propagating upstream in an estuarine zone with a funnel shape as the tide starts rising under spring tidal conditions. The sediment transport was initiated during the passage of the bore roller toe by the large longitudinal pressure gradient force, and the sediment particles were subjected to large horizontal accelerations. The study will deliver high-resolution quantitative data in terms of force terms acting on sediment particles beneath a tidal bore and their trajectory characteristics.
Publications derived from the project
    LI, Y., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Decelerating Bores in Channels and Estuaries." Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 449-465 (DOI: 10.1080/21664250.2018.1529261) (ISSN 0578-5634). (PDF file) (Deposit at UQeSpace)

    LI, Y., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Sediment Motion beneath Surges and Bores." Proc. 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures ISHS 2018, Aachen, Germany, 15-18 May, B.P. TULLIS and D.B. BUNG Editors, 10 pages (DOI: 10.15142/T3B340) (ISBN: 978-0-692-13277-7). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace) (Record at DigitalCommons, Utah State University)
   LI, Y., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Free-surface and Velocity Characteristics of Tidal Bore Propagation against a Slope: Experiments on Decelerating Bores." Proceedings of 37th IAHR World Congress, IAHR & USAINS Holding Sdn. Bhd. Publ., Editors Aminuddin Ab. Ghani, Ngai Weng Chan, Junaidah Ariffin, Ahmad Khairi Abd Wahab, Sobri Harun, Amir Hashim Mohamad Kassim and Othman Karim, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 13-18 August, Vol. 4, Theme 4.3, pp. 3413-3422 (ISSN 2521-7127 (USB); ISSN 2521-716X (Online)). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)

 
Unsteady Turbulence in the Propagation of Breaking and Undular Bores
Student : Xinqian (Sophia) LENG
LENG, X. (2018). "Study of Turbulence: the Unsteady Propagation of Bores and Surges." Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 364 pages & 2 Digital Appendices (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2018.501). (PDF at UQeSpace) (Digital Appendix E & Digital Appendix F)
    2018 University of Queensland Dean’s Award for Research Higher Degree Excellence (2018 Theses commended by their thesis examiners)
Study period : 2014-2018
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON, Pierre LUBIN and Hang WANG
A tidal bore is essentially a positive surge formed in an estuary under spring tide conditions in a narrow funnelled channel mouth during the early flood tide. After formation, the bore may be analogical to a translating hydraulic jump. Herein both breaking and undular bores are investigated experimentally and numericaly, combining CFD modelling with large-scale laboratory works and field investigations.
Publications derived from the project
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2019). "Air-Water Interaction and Characteristics in Breaking Bores." International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 120, Paper 103101, 17 pages (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2019.103101) (ISSN 0301-9322). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2019). "Two-phase Flow Measurements of an Unsteady Breaking Bore." Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 60, No. 3, Paper 42, 15 pages & 2 video movies (DOI: 10.1007/s00348-019-2689-2) (ISSN 0723-4864). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2019). "Two-Dimensional Integral Turbulent Scales in Compression Wave in a Canal." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 102, pp. 163-180 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2018.09.014) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Deposit at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., SIMON, B., KHEZRI, N., LUBIN, P., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "CFD Modelling of Tidal Bores: Development and Validation Challenges." Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 423-436 (DOI: 10.1080/21664250.2018.1498211) (ISSN 0578-5634). (PDF file) (Deposit at UQeSpace)
   REUNGOAT, D., LUBIN, P., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Tidal Bore Hydrodynamics and Sediment Processes: 2010-2016 Field Observations in France." Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 484-498 (DOI: 10.1080/21664250.2018.1529265) (ISSN 0578-5634). (PDF file) (Deposit at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., CHANSON, H., and REUNGOAT, D. (2018). "Turbulence and Turbulent Flux Events in Tidal Bores: Case Study of the Undular Tidal Bore of the Garonne River." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 807-828 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-017-9561-9) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   REUNGOAT, D., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Successive impact of tidal bores on sedimentary processes: Arcins channel, Garonne River." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 188, pp. 163-173 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.02.025) (ISSN 0272-7714). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Bores and Hydraulic Jumps. Environmental and Geophysical Applications." Engineering and Computational Mechanics, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, UK, Vol. 170, No. EM1, pp. 25-42 (DOI: 10.1680/jencm.16.00025) (ISSN 1755-0777). (PDF file) (Reprint at UQeSpace) 2018 Baker Medal, Institution of Civil Engineers, UK.
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Upstream Propagation of Surges and Bores: Free-Surface Observations." Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol. 59, No. 1, paper 1750003, 32 pages & 4 videos (DOI: 10.1142/S0578563417500036) (ISSN 0578-5634). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace) (Video movies at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Integral Turbulent Scales in Unsteady Rapidly Varied Open Channel Flows." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 81, pp. 382–395 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2016.09.017) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Unsteady Velocity Profiling in Bores and Positive Surges." Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 54, pp. 136-145 (DOI: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2017.01.004) (ISSN 0955-5986). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Unsteady Turbulence, Dynamic Similarity and Scale Effects in Bores and Positive surges." European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids, Vol. 61, pp. 125-134 (DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2016.09.017) (ISSN 0997-7546). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Coupling between Free-surface Fluctuations, Velocity Fluctuations and Turbulent Reynolds Stresses during the Upstream Propagation of Positive Surges, Bores and Compression Waves." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 695-719 & digital appendix (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-015-9438-8) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Digital appendix) (Reprint at UQeSpace)
   SUN, S., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Rapid Operation of a Tainter Gate: Generation Process and Initial Upstream Surge Motion." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 87-100  (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-015-9414-3) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Turbulent Advances of a Breaking Bore: Preliminary Physical Experiments." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 62, pp. 70-77 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2014.12.002) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Breaking Bore: Physical Observations of Roller Characteristics." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 65, pp. 24-29 (DOI: 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2015.02.008) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)

   LENG, X., CHANSON, H., and LUBIN, P. (2018). "Air Bubble Entrainment in Breaking Bores: Physical and Numerical CFD Modelling." Proc. 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures ISHS 2018, Aachen, Germany, 15-18 May, B.P. TULLIS and D.B. BUNG Editors, 11 pages (DOI: 10.15142/T3FS9Q) (ISBN: 978-0-692-13277-7). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace) (Record at DigitalCommons, Utah State University)
   KIRI, U., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Positive Surge Propagation in Non-Rectangular Channels." Proceedings of 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference HIWE2017, Engineers Australia, Sydney, 13-16 November, 9 pages (ISBN 978-1-925627-03-9). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Unsteady Turbulent Velocity Profiling using an Array of Two Vectrino II Profilers in Tidal Bores and Open Channel Flows." Proceedings of 37th IAHR World Congress, IAHR & USAINS Holding Sdn. Bhd. Publ., Editors Aminuddin Ab. Ghani, Ngai Weng Chan, Junaidah Ariffin, Ahmad Khairi Abd Wahab, Sobri Harun, Amir Hashim Mohamad Kassim and Othman Karim, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 13-18 August, Vol. 7, Theme 7.4, pp. 5482-5490 (ISSN 2521-7127 (USB); ISSN 2521-716X (Online)). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
    REUNGOAT, D., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Sedimentary and Hydrodynamics Processes of Tidal Bores: Siltation and the Arcins Channel, Garonne River (France)." Proceedings of 37th IAHR World Congress, IAHR & USAINS Holding Sdn. Bhd. Publ., Editors Aminuddin Ab. Ghani, Ngai Weng Chan, Junaidah Ariffin, Ahmad Khairi Abd Wahab, Sobri Harun, Amir Hashim Mohamad Kassim and Othman Karim, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 13-18 August, Vol. 4, Theme 4.3, pp. 3458-3467 (ISSN 2521-7127 (USB); ISSN 2521-716X (Online)). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
    LENG, X., LUBIN, P., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "CFD Modelling of Breaking and Undular Tidal Bores with Physical Validation." Proceedings of 37th IAHR World Congress, IAHR & USAINS Holding Sdn. Bhd. Publ., Editors Aminuddin Ab. Ghani, Ngai Weng Chan, Junaidah Ariffin, Ahmad Khairi Abd Wahab, Sobri Harun, Amir Hashim Mohamad Kassim and Othman Karim, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 13-18 August, Vol. 7, Theme 7.1, pp. 5072-5081 (ISSN 2521-7127 (USB); ISSN 2521-716X (Online)). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., CHANSON, H., and REUNGOAT, D. (2016). "Turbulence and Turbulent Eventsin Tidal Bores: Field Observations." Proceedings of 20th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Australasian Fluid Mechanics Society, G. IVEY, T. ZHOU, N. JONES, S. DRAPER Editors, Perth WA,Australia, 5-8 December, Paper 434, 4 pages (ISBN 978 2 74052 377 6). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2016)."Steady and unsteady turbulent velocity profiling in open channel flows using the ADV Vectrino II profiler." Proceedings of 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, B. CROOKSTON & B. TULLIS Editors, 27-30 June, Portland OR, USA, pp. 305-314 (DOI: 10.15142/T3620628160853) (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4). (PDF file) (Link at USU) (ISHS2016 proceedings) (Reprint at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Turbulent Advances of Breaking Bores: Physical Modelling in a Large Facility." Proc. 36th IAHR World Congress, The Hague, The Netherlands, 27 June-3 July, Paper 78518, 12 pages. (PDF file)

   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Two-phase Flow Characteristics of a Breaking Tidal Bore Roller: Microscopic Properties." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH109/18, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 190 pages (ISBN 978-1-74272-195-8). (Deposit at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Simultaneous Velocity Profiling in Unsteady Turbulent Flows Using an Array of Two Vectrino Profilers." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH106/17, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 134 pages (ISBN 978-1-74272-183-5). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Digital Appendices)
   REUNGOAT, D., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Suspended Sediment Processes in the Garonne River Tidal Bore: Arcins Channel on 14-15 November 2016." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH108/17, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 166 pages (ISBN 978-1-74272-187-3). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
   REUNGOAT, D., LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Hydrodynamic and Sedimentary Processes of Tidal Bores: Arcins Channel, Garonne River in August-September-October 2015." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH102/16, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 270 pages (ISBN 978-1-74272-155-2). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Unsteady Turbulent Velocity Profiling in Open Channel Flows and Tidal Bores using a Vectrino Profiler." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH101/15, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 118 pages (ISBN 978-1-74272-145-3). (PDF at UQeSpace)
   LENG, X.
, and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Unsteady Turbulence during the Upstream Propagation of Undular and Breaking Tidal Bores: an Experimental Investigation." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH98/15, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 235 pages & 4 video movies (ISBN 978 1 74272 135 4). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Video movies at UQeSpace)
  
LENG, X., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Turbulent Advances of Breaking Bores: Experimental Observations." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH96/14, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 40 pages (ISBN 978 1 74272 130 9). (PDF file at UQeSpace)


Turbulence, Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in Stepped Spillways

Student : Gangfu ZHANG
ZHANG, G. (2017). "Free-Surface Aeration, Turbulence, and Energy Dissipation on Stepped Chutes with Triangular Steps, Chamfered Steps, and Partially Blocked Step Cavities." Ph.D. thesis, The University of Queensland, School of Civil Engineering, 361 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2017.906). (PDF at UQeSpace)

Study period : 2013-2017
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON, John MACINTOSH and Hang WANG
Stepped spillways are one of the first kinds of flood release facilities used by dams. The first design of stepped spillways was known for more than 3,500 years. The steps contribute to some dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy and therefore reduce or eliminate the need for a stilling structure. This thesis work investigates experimentally the turbulence characteristics and energy dissipation processes.
Publications derived from the project
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2019). "On Void Fraction and Flow Fragmentation in Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Free-Surface Flows." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 96, pp. 24-28 & Digital Appendix pp. S1-S6 (DOI: 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2019.01.001) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file with digital appendix) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Effects of Step and Cavity Shapes on Aeration and Energy Dissipation Performances of Stepped Chutes." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 144, No. 9, Paper 04018060, 12 pages (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001505) (ISSN 0733-9429). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   ZHANG, G. VALERO, D., BUNG, D.B., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "On the Estimation of Free-surface Turbulence using Ultrasonic Sensors." Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 60, pp. 171-184 (DOI 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2018.02.009) (ISSN 0955-5986). (PDF file) (Reprint at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., SLAMET, N.S., ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Intrusive Measurements of Air-Water Flow Properties in Highly Turbulent Supported Plunging Jets and Effects of Inflow Jet Conditions." Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 177, pp. 245-260 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2017.11.030) (ISSN 0009-2509). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   ZHANG, G.
, and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Air-water Flow Properties in Stepped chutes with Modified Step and Cavity Geometries." International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 99, pp. 423-436 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2017.11.009) (ISSN 0301-9322). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Application of Local Optical Flow Methods to High-Velocity Free-surface Flows: Validation and Application to Stepped Chutes." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 90, pp. 186-199 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2017.09.010) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2017). "Self-aeration in Smooth and Stepped Chutes." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 27-46 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-015-9442-z) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Hydraulics of the Developing Flow Region of Stepped Spillways. I: Physical Modeling and Boundary Layer Development." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 142, No. 7, 8 pages (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001138) (ISSN 0733-9429). (Preprint with colour figures) (PDF file)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Hydraulics of the Developing Flow Region of Stepped Spillways. II: Pressure and Velocity Fields." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 142, No. 7, 9 pages (DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001136) (ISSN 0733-9429). (Preprint with colour figures) (PDF file)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Gabion Stepped Spillway: Interactions between Free-Surface, Cavity, and Seepage Flows." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 142, No. 5, Paper 06016002, 5 pages (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001120) (ISSN 0733-9429). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace with colour figures)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Interactions between Free-surface Aeration and Total Pressure on a Stepped Chute." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 74, pp. 368-381 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2015.12.011) (ISSN 0894-1777). (Preprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)

   ZHANG, G.
, and CHANSON, H. (2016)."Free-Surface Aeration in a Steep Stepped Spillway." Proceedings of 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, B. CROOKSTON & B. TULLIS Editors, 27-30 June, Portland OR, USA, pp. 30-39 (DOI: 10.15142/T3670628160853) (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4). (PDF file) (Link at USU) (ISHS2016 proceedings) (Reprint at UQeSpace)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2016)."Turbulence and Energy Dissipation in the Developing Non-Aerated and the Fully-Developed Aerated Flows on a Stepped Spillway." Proceedings of 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, B. CROOKSTON & B. TULLIS Editors, 27-30 June, Portland OR, USA, pp. 12-21 (DOI: 10.15142/T3640628160853) (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4). (PDF file) (Link at USU) (ISHS2016 proceedings) (Reprint at UQeSpace)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Broad-crested Weir Operation Upstream of a Steep Stepped Spillway." Proc. 36th IAHR World Congress, The Hague, The Netherlands, 27 June-3 July, Paper 79662, 11 pages. (PDF file)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Free-Surface and Seepage Bubbly Flows on a Gabion Stepped Spillway Weir: Experimental Observations." Proc. 36th IAHR World Congress, The Hague, The Netherlands, 27 June-3 July, Paper 79661, 11 pages. (PDF file)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Two-Phase Flow on a Gabion Stepped Spillway: Cavity and Seepage Air-Water Motion." Proceedings of 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Melbourne, Australia, Paper 119, 4 pages (ISBN: 978-0-646-59695-2). (PDF at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Step Cavity and Gabion Aeration on a Gabion Stepped Spillway." in "Hydraulic Structures and Society – Engineering Challenges and Extremes", The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Proceedings of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures (ISHS2014), 25-27 June 2014, Brisbane, Australia, H. CHANSON and L. TOOMBES Editors, 8 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2014.37) (ISBN 978-1-74272-115-6). (PDF file)

   ZHANG, G., CHANSON, H. (2017). "Application of Local Optical Flow Methods to High-Velocity Air-Water Flows: Validation and Application to Skimming Flows on Stepped Chutes." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH105/17, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 59 pages (ISBN 978-1-74272-182-8). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
   ZHANG, G., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Hydraulics of the Developing Flow Region of Stepped Cascades: an Experimental Investigation." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH97/15, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 76 pages (ISBN 978 1 74272 134 7). (PDF file at UQeSpace)

Turbulence and Air Entrainment in Hydraulic Jumps

Student : Hang WANG
WANG, H. (2014). "Turbulence and Air Entrainment in Hydraulic Jumps." Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 341 pages & Digital appendices (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2014.542). (PDF at UQeSpace)
        2014 Lorenz G. Straub Award for the Ph.D. dissertation: "Turbulence and Air Entrainment in Hydraulic Jumps". (Staub Award Recipients)
        2014 University of Queensland Dean’s Award for Outstanding Research Higher Degree Theses (Top 10 % of UQ Theses graduating in 2014)

Study period : 2011-2014
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON and Frederic MURZYN
A hydraulic jump is a sudden transition from a supercritical flow to a subcritical flow. It is an extremely turbulent flow associated with the development of large-scale turbulence, surface waves and spray, air entrainment and energy dissipation. Hydraulic jumps are commonly encountered in natural waterways and hydraulic structures, and are often used for the purpose of enhancement of energy dissipation, fluid mixing or flow re-aeration. Despite relevant studies in the last two centuries, the hydraulic jump flow regimes are not fully understood because of the large number of parameters to describe the flow and the simultaneous presence of and interactions between various turbulent two-phase flow properties.  This thesis presents a systematic study of classical hydraulic jumps with partially-developed inflow conditions based upon physical modelling. The nature of the flow was characterised with a range of flow properties related to the free-surface dynamics, air entrainment and transport, characteristic turbulent scales and bubble-turbulence interactions. The free-surface and air-water flow measurements were respectively facilitated with non-intrusive acoustic displacement meters and intrusive phase-detection probes. The turbulence properties were mainly derived from the air-water interface detection. The spatial distributions of two-phase flow properties and turbulent scales, as well as the effects of Froude and Reynolds numbers, revealed some interaction between turbulence development and air entrainment. The study covered a wide range of Froude numbers from 2.8 to 10 and Reynolds numbers from 2.1×104 to 1.6×105.  A series of basic findings were in agreement with previous researches. The dimensions of hydraulic jump and the length scales of free-surface dynamics were only determined by the inflow Froude number, while the time scales, namely the characteristic frequencies of free-surface dynamics, were further affected by the Reynolds number and may experience scale effects. The jump roller was characterised by a turbulent shear flow region on the bottom and a free-surface recirculation region above. Typical void fraction and bubble count rate distributions reflected the unique aeration pattern which was a combination of singular air entrainment at the jump toe and interfacial air-water exchange through the free-surface. A number of characteristic air-water flow properties were quantified, of which the self-similar distributions enabled the theoretical prediction of two-phase flow structures. The results highlighted the linkage of the advection and diffusion of air bubbles to both buoyancy effects and dissipation of turbulence and kinetic energy. The bubble-turbulence interplay induced the occurrence of bubble clustering, which was analysed in both longitudinal and transverse dimensions.  The turbulence characterisation based upon local phase detection in such an instationary two-phase flow was substantially improved by the application of triple decomposition technique to the phase-detection signal. The impact of pseudo-periodic fluctuations was identified, and the "true" turbulence was characterised with high-frequency turbulence intensity and integral length/time scales. An extensive discussion of characteristic turbulent scales was proposed, including the scale effects. The simultaneous total pressure measurements in the roller further provided a connection between water level fluctuations, jump toe oscillations, air entrainment and instantaneous velocity field variations. The total pressure fluctuations indicated different dynamic flow regimes in the main and lower shear regions. In a down-scaled model, most turbulence-related flow properties were not scaled accordingly based on a Froude similitude, and viscous scale effects could be significant for small Reynolds numbers.  The present thesis provides a comprehensive description of the turbulent two-phase flow in hydraulic jump. The original work was contributed with advanced data collection and analysis methods. It is expected that this work would bring our knowledge of such a complex open channel flow to the cutting edge, and provide solid justification for future theoretical and numerical studies that have a long way ahead.
Publications derived from the project
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2019). "Characterisation of Transverse Turbulent Motion in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Aerated Flow: Application of Four-Point Air-Water Flow Measurements in Hydraulic Jump." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 100, pp. 222-232 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2018.09.004) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (preprint at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2018). "Estimate of void fraction and air entrainment flux in hydraulic jump using Froude number." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 105-116 (DOI: 10.1139/cjce-2016-0279) (ISSN 0315-1468). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2016). "Self-similarity and Scale Effects in Physical Modelling of Hydraulic Jump Roller Dynamics, Air Entrainment and Turbulent Scales." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 1087-1110 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-016-9466-z) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., HU, Z., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Two-dimensional bubble clustering in hydraulic jumps." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 68, pp. 711-721 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2015.07.006) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Experimental Study of Turbulent Fluctuations in Hydraulic Jumps." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 141, No. 7, Paper 04015010, 10 pages (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001010) (ISSN 0733-9429). (Preprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Air Entrainment and Turbulent Fluctuations in Hydraulic Jumps." Urban Water Journal, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 502-518 (DOI: 10.1080/1573062X.2013.847464) (ISSN 1573-062X (Print), 1744-9006 (Online)). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., MURZYN, F., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Interaction between Free-Surface, Two-Phase Flow and Total Pressure in Hydraulic Jump." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 64, pp. 30-41 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2015.02.003) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., MURZYN, F., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Total Pressure Fluctuations and Two-Phase Flow Turbulence in Hydraulic Jumps." Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 55, No. 11, Paper 1847, 16 pages (DOI: 10.1007/s00348-014-1847-9) (ISSN 0723-4864). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "An Experimental Study of Turbulent Two-Phase Flow in Hydraulic Jumps and Application of a Triple Decomposition Technique." Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 55, No. 7, Paper 1775, 18 pages & 2 video movies (DOI: 10.1007/s00348-014-1775-8) (ISSN 0723-4864). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
   ZHANG, G., WANG, H., CHANSON, H. (2013). "Turbulence and Aeration in Hydraulic Jumps: Free-Surface Fluctuation and Integral Turbulent Scale Measurements." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 189–204 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-012-9254-3) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
   CHANSON, H., and WANG, H. (2013). "Unsteady Discharge Calibration of a Large V-notch Weir." Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 29, pp. 19-24 & 2 videos (DOI: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2012.10.010) (ISSN 0955-5986). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file) (Video movies at UQeSpace)
  
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Integral Turbulent Length and Time Scales in Hydraulic Jumps: an Experimental Investigation at Large Reynolds Numbers." Proc. 36th IAHR World Congress, The Hague, The Netherlands, 27 June-3 July, Paper 78834, 13 pages. (PDF file)
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Turbulent Fluctuations in Hydraulic Jumps: a Physical Study." in "Hydraulic Structures and Society – Engineering Challenges and Extremes", The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Proceedings of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures (ISHS2014), 25-27 June 2014, Brisbane, Australia, H. CHANSON and L. TOOMBES Editors, 8 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2014.15) (ISBN 978-1-74272-115-6). (PDF file)
   WANG, H., MURZYN, F., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Pressure Fluctuations and Air-Water Flow Properties in Hydraulic Jumps." in "Hydraulic Structures and Society – Engineering Challenges and Extremes", The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Proceedings of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures (ISHS2014), 25-27 June 2014, Brisbane, Australia, H. CHANSON and L. TOOMBES Editors, 9 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2014.34) (ISBN 978-1-74272-115-6). (PDF file)
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Physical Modelling of Hydraulic Jump: Dynamic Properties and Internal Two-Phase Flow." Proc. 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China, 8-13 Sept., WANG Z., LEE, J.H.W., GAO, J., and CAO S. Editors, Paper A10310, 10 pages (ISBN 978-7-302-33544-3). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Two-Phase Flow Properties and Free-Surface Deformations in Hydraulic Jumps." Proc. 8th International Conference on Multiphase Flow ICMF 2013, Jeju, Korea, 26-31 May, Paper ICMF2013-1079, 9 pages (USB key). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   CHANSON, H., and WANG, H. (2013). "V-Notch Weir Overflow: an Unsteady Calibration." Proceedings of International Workshop on Hydraulic Design of Low-Head Structures, IAHR, 20-22 Feb., Aachen, Germany, D. BUNG and S. PAGLIARA Editors, Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau (BAW, Karlsruhe), pp. 161-168 (ISBN 978-3-939230-04-5). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   ZHANG, G., WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Air Entrainment and Turbulence in Hydraulic Jumps: Free-Surface Fluctuations and Integral Turbulent Scales." Proc. 4th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, APRH - Associação Portuguesa dos Recursos Hídricos (Portuguese Water Resources Association), J. MATOS, S. PAGLIARA & I. MEIRELES Eds., 9-11 February 2012, Porto, Portugal, Paper 3, 8 pages (CD-ROM) (ISBN 978-989-8509-01-7). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)

   WANG, H., MURZYN, F., and D., CHANSON, H. (2014). "Pressure, Turbulence and Two-Phase Flow Measurements in Hydraulic Jumps." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH95/14, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 154 pages (ISBN 9781742721064). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
   WANG, H., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Free-Surface Deformation and Two-Phase Flow Measurements in Hydraulic Jumps." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH91/13, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 108 pages (ISBN 9781742720746). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
   CHANSON, H., and WANG, H. (2012). "Unsteady Discharge Calibration of a Large V-Notch Weir." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH88/12, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 50 pages & 4 movies (ISBN 9781742720579). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Video movies at UQeSpace)

Effects of Tidal Bores on Turbulent Mixing: a Numerical and Physical Study in Positive Surges

Student : Bruno SIMON
SIMON, B. (2014). "Effects of Tidal Bores on Turbulent Mixing: a Numerical and Physical Study in Positive Surges." Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 259 pages & 7 movies. (PDF file at UQeSpace)
Study period : 2010-2014
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON and Pierre LUBIN
Tidal bores are positive surges created by the flooding of tides inside estuaries and rivers. They were investigatted both in laboratory and numerically using an advanced CFD codes. Numerical simulations reproduced previous experiments, contributing to a step towards a better understanding of tidal bores. Two and three dimensional CFD simulations were tested. The three dimensional simulations were conducted with and without initial steady turbulent conditions.
Publications derived from the project
   CHANSON, H., REUNGOAT, D., SIMON, B., and LUBIN, P. (2011). "High-Frequency Turbulence and Suspended Sediment Concentration Measurements in the Garonne River Tidal Bore." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 95, No. 2-3, pp. 298-306 (DOI 10.1016/j.ecss.2011.09.012) (ISSN 0272-7714). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
   SIMON, B., LUBIN, P., GLOCKNER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Hydrodynamics generated by a Weak Breaking Tidal Bore." Proc. 34th IAHR World Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June-1 July, Engineers Australia Publication, Eric VALENTINE, Colin APELT, James BALL, Hubert CHANSON, Ron COX, Rob ETTEMA, George KUCZERA, Martin LAMBERT, Bruce MELVILLE and Jane SARGISON Editors, pp. 1133-1140 (ISBN 978-0-85825-868-6). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   SIMON, B., LUBIN, P., REUNGOAT, D., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Turbulence Measurements in the Garonne River Tidal Bore: First Observations." Proc. 34th IAHR World Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June-1 July, Engineers Australia Publication, Eric VALENTINE, Colin APELT, James BALL, Hubert CHANSON, Ron COX, Rob ETTEMA, George KUCZERA, Martin LAMBERT, Bruce MELVILLE and Jane SARGISON Editors, pp. 1141-1148 (ISBN 978-0-85825-868-6). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   MOUAZE, D., CHANSON, H., and SIMON, B. (2010). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Sélune River in the Bay of Mont Saint Michel (September 2010)." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH81/10, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 72 pages (ISBN 9781742720210). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
   CHANSON, H., LUBIN, P., SIMON, B., and REUNGOAT, D. (2010). "Turbulence and Sediment Processes in the Tidal Bore of the Garonne River: First Observations." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH79/10, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 97 pages (ISBN 9781742720104). (PDF file at UQeSpace)

Modelling Turbulent Mixing and Sediment Process Beneath Tidal Bores: Physical and Numerical Investigations

Student : Nazanin KHEZRI
KHEZRI, N. (2014). "Modelling Turbulent Mixing and Sediment Process Beneath Tidal Bores: Physical and Numerical Investigations." Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 267 pages. (PDF file at UQeSpace)

Study period : 2010-2014
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON and Pierre LUBIN
A tidal bore is a hydrodynamic shock in some natural estuarine system during the early flood tide under spring tide conditions. In this thesis the flow field and turbulence characteristics of tidal bores propagating over mobile rough bed were measured using both physical and numerical (CFD) modelling. The findings showed the dominant role of the longitudinal pressure gradient force beneath the bore front on the inception of sediment motion, and the effect of shear force in the later sediment motion. Some numerical (CFD) simulation of the unsteady two-phase undular and breaking bore flow on fixed gravel bed was carried out. Some novel method in the numerical tool includes the use of a mesh grid disconnected from the geometry, which allows the fluid domain being treated globally. The numerical simulation of the breaking bore in this study was a “breakthrough”. The free surface was modelled using the smooth volume of fluid technique (SVOF) and also the turbulence modelling was performed via large eddy simulation technique LES. The data was used to map the velocity and pressure field and resolve some interesting characteristics of the flow. The results were in good agreement and the very large pressure gradient force just beneath the bore toe was also observed in the numerical measurements.
Publications derived from the project
  
KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Turbulent Velocity, Sediment Motion and Particle Trajectories under Breaking Tidal Bores: Simultaneous Physical Measurements." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 633-651 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-014-9358-z) & (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-014-9360) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Preprint at UQeSpace) (Errata)
   KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Undular and Breaking Tidal Bores on Fixed and Movable Gravel Beds." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 353-363 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2012.686200) (ISSN 0022-1686). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
   KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Inception of Bed Load Motion beneath a Bore." Geomorphology, Vol. 153-154, pp. 39-47 & 2 video movies (DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.02.006) (ISSN 0169-555X). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
   KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Sediment Inception under Breaking Tidal Bores." Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 41, pp. 49-53 & 1 video movie (DOI 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2012.02.010) (ISSN 0093-6413). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace) (Digital appendix: video movie)

   KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Simultaneous Measurements of Turbulent Velocity and Sediment Motion under Tidal Bores." Proc. 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China, 8-13 Sept., WANG Z., LEE, J.H.W., GAO, J., and CAO S. Editors, Paper A10216, 10 pages (ISBN 978-7-302-33544-3). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
   KHEZRI, N., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Inception of Gravel Bed Motion beneath Tidal Bores: an Experimental Study." Proc. 34th IAHR World Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June-1 July, Engineers Australia Publication, Eric VALENTINE, Colin APELT, James BALL, Hubert CHANSON, Ron COX, Rob ETTEMA, George KUCZERA, Martin LAMBERT, Bruce MELVILLE and Jane SARGISON Editors, pp. 1077-1084 (ISBN 978-0-85825-868-6). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)

Air-Water Flow Properties on Stepped Spillways for Embankment Dams: Aeration, Energy Dissipation and Turbulence on Uniform, Non-Uniform and Pooled Stepped Chutes

Student : Stefan FELDER
FELDER, S. (2013). "Air-Water Flow Properties on Stepped Spillways for Embankment Dams: Aeration, Energy Dissipation and Turbulence on Uniform, Non-Uniform and Pooled Stepped Chutes."  Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. (PDF file at UQeSpace) - 2013 University of Queensland Dean’s Award for Research Higher Degree Excellence (Top 10 % of UQ Theses graduating in 2013)

Study period : 2009-2013
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON and Jorge MATOS
Air-water flow experiments were conducted on some flat and pooled stepped spillways with slopes of 8.9° and 26.6° in transition and skimming flows. The study comprised the observations of the flow patterns, characteristic air-water flow properties, and energy dissipation performances. The air-water flow properties showed some key features. A new post-processing technique was developed to characterise the respective contributions of slow fluctuating instabilities and high-frequency turbulence. 
Publications derived from the project
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Aeration and Air–Water Mass Transfer on Stepped Chutes with Embankment Dam Slopes." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 695–710 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-014-9376-x) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2015). "Phase-Detection Probe Measurements in High-Velocity Free-Surface Flows including a Discussion of Key Sampling Parameters." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 61, pp. 66-78 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2014.10.009) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Air–water Flows and Free-surface Profiles on a Non-uniform Stepped Chute." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 253-263 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2013.841780) (ISSN 0022-1686). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
WANG, H., FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "An Experimental Study of Turbulent Two-Phase Flow in Hydraulic Jumps and Application of a Triple Decomposition Technique." Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 55, No. 7, Paper 1775, 18 pages & 2 video movies (DOI: 10.1007/s00348-014-1775-8) (ISSN 0723-4864). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file) (Video movies at UQeSpace)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Triple Decomposition Technique in Air–Water Flows: Application to Instationary Flows on a Stepped Spillway." International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 58, pp. 139-153 & 3 videos (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2013.09.006) (ISSN 0301-9322). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file) (Movies at UQeSpace)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Effects of Step Pool Porosity upon Flow Aeration and Energy Dissipation on Pooled Stepped Spillways." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 140, No. 4, Paper 04014002, 11 pages (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000858) (ISSN 0733-9429). (Postprint at UQespace) (PDF file)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Aeration, Flow Instabilities, and Residual Energy on Pooled Stepped Spillways of Embankment Dams." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 139, No. 10, pp. 880-887 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000627) (ISSN 0733-9437). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
GUENTHER, P., FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Flow Aeration, Cavity Processes and Energy Dissipation on Flat and Pooled Stepped Spillways for Embankments." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 503-525 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-013-9277-4). (Record at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
FELDER, S, and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Free-surface Profiles, Velocity and Pressure Distributions on a Broad-Crested Weir: a Physical study." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 138, No. 12, pp. 1068–1074 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000515) (ISSN 0733-9437). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Energy Dissipation down a Stepped Spillway with Nonuniform Step Heights." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 137, No. 11, pp. 1543-1548 (DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000455) (ISSN 0733-9429). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace). Discussion: Discussion: Vol. 138, No. 10, pp. 920-922 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000455) (ISSN 0733-9429). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQespace)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Air-Water Flow Properties in Step Cavity down a Stepped Chute." International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 732–745 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2011.02.009) (ISSN 0301-9322). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)

FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2014). "Energy dissipation and flow resistance on flat slope stepped spillways." in "Hydraulic Structures and Society – Engineering Challenges and Extremes", The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Proceedings of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures (ISHS2014), 25-27 June 2014, Brisbane, Australia, H. CHANSON and L. TOOMBES Editors, 9 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2014.22) (ISBN 978-1-74272-115-6). (PDF file)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Two-Phase Flow Measurements in Un-stationary Free-surface Flows: a New Signal Decomposition Technique." Proc. 8th International Conference on Multiphase Flow ICMF 2013, Jeju, Korea, 26-31 May, Paper ICMF2013-064, 10 pages (USB key). (Preprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
GUENTHER, P., FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Flat and Pooled Stepped Spillways for Overflow Weirs and Embankments: Cavity Flow Processes, Flow Aeration and Energy Dissipation." Proceedings of International Workshop on Hydraulic Design of Low-Head Structures, IAHR, 20-22 Feb., Aachen, Germany, D. BUNG and S. PAGLIARA Editors, Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau (BAW, Karlsruhe), pp. 77-86 (ISBN 978-3-939230-04-5). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2012). "Velocity and Pressure Measurements on a Broad-Crested Weir: Physical Measurements." Proc. 4th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, APRH - Associação Portuguesa dos Recursos Hídricos (Portuguese Water Resources Association), J. MATOS, S. PAGLIARA & I. MEIRELES Eds., 9-11 February 2012, Porto, Portugal, Paper 2, 8 pages (CD-ROM) (ISBN 978-989-8509-01-7). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
FELDER, S., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment on Stepped Spillways with Non-Uniform Cavity Sizes." Proc. 34th IAHR World Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June-1 July, Engineers Australia Publication, Eric VALENTINE, Colin APELT, James BALL, Hubert CHANSON, Ron COX, Rob ETTEMA, George KUCZERA, Martin LAMBERT, Bruce MELVILLE and Jane SARGISON Editors, pp. 2412-2419 (ISBN 978-0-85825-868-6). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and FELDER, S. (2010). "Turbulence Measurements in Air-Water Self-Aerated Flows: Basic Analysis and Results." Proc. 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow ICMF 2010, Tampa FL, USA, May 30-June 4, Paper No. 10.3.4, 11 pages (USB Memory Stick). (PDF in ICMF2010 Proceedings) (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and FELDER, S. (2010). "Energy Dissipation on Embankment Dam Stepped Spillways, Overflow Stepped Weirs and Masonry Stepped Spillways." Proc. of 17th Congress of IAHR Asia and Pacific Division, IAHR-APD, Auckland, New Zealand, 21-24 Feb., B. MELVILLE, G. DE COSTA, and T. SWANN Eds., 10 pages (ISBN 0-86869-125-9). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)

Hydraulic Modelling of Unsteady Open Channel Flow: Physical and Analytical Validation of Numerical Models of Positive and Negative Surges

Student : Martina REICHSTETTER
REICHSTETTER, M. (2011). "Hydraulic Modelling of Unsteady Open Channel Flow: Physical and Analytical Validation of Numerical Models of Positive and Negative Surges." MPhil thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 112 pages. (PDF file at UQeSpace) - 2012 University of Queensland Dean’s Award for Research Higher Degree Excellence (Top 10 % of UQ Theses graduating in 2012)

Study period : 2010-2011
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON and Luke TOOMBES
Positive and negative surges are commonly by control structures in open channels, such as the opening and closing of a gate. In this study, the free-surface properties and turbulence characteristics of negative and positive surges were investigated physically under controlled conditions, as well as analytically and numerically. Unsteady open channel flow data were collected during the upstream propagation of negative and positive surges. Both, physical and numerical modelling, were performed. A number of analytical and numerical models were tested, including the analytical and numerical solutions of the Saint-Venant equations and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package. Overall, all models provided reasonable results for the negative surge. None of the models were able to provide a good agreement with the measured data for the positive surge. The study showed that theoretical models may be applied successfully to unsteady flow situations with simple channel geometry. 
Publications derived from the project
REICHSTETTER, M., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Negative Surges in Open Channels: Physical and Numerical Modeling." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 139, No. 3, pp. 341-346 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000674) (ISSN 0733-9429). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
REICHSTETTER, M., and CHANSON, H. (2013). "Unsteady Turbulent Properties in Negative Waves in Open Channels." European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids, Vol. 37, pp. 1-9 & 2 video movies (DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2012.07.003) (ISSN 0997-7546). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file) (Movies at UQeSpace)

REICHSTETTER, M., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Negative Surge in Open Channel: Physical, Numerical and Analytical Modelling." Proc. 34th IAHR World Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June-1 July, Engineers Australia Publication, Eric VALENTINE, Colin APELT, James BALL, Hubert CHANSON, Ron COX, Rob ETTEMA, George KUCZERA, Martin LAMBERT, Bruce MELVILLE and Jane SARGISON Editors, pp. 2306-2313 (ISBN 978-0-85825-868-6). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
REICHSTETTER, M., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Physical and Numerical Modelling of Negative Surges in Open Channels." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH84/11, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 82 pages (ISBN 9781742720388). (PDF file at UQeSpace)

Turbulence and aeration in breaking hydraulic jumps with relatively small Froude numbers

Student : Yann CHACHEREAU

Study period : 2009-2010
A hydraulic jump is the highly turbulent transition between a high-velocity impinging flow and a turbulent roller. The jump flow is characterised by some substantial air bubble entrainment, spray and splashing. In this study, the free surface fluctuations and air-water properties of the hydraulic jump roller were investigated physically for relatively small Froude numbers (2.4 < Fr1 < 5.1) and relatively large Reynolds numbers (6.6×104 < Re < 1.3×105). The shape of the mean free surface profile was well defined, and the time-averaged free-surface elevation corresponded to the upper free-surface, with the quantitative values being close to the equivalent clear-water depth. The turbulent fluctuation profiles exhibited a maximum in the first part of the hydraulic jump roller. The free surface fluctuations presented some characteristic frequencies between 1.4 and 4 Hz,. Some simultaneous free-surface measurements at a series of two closely located points yielded the free surface length and time scales of free-surface fluctuations in terms of both longitudinal and transverse directions. The length scale data seemed to depend upon the inflow Froude number, while the time scale data showed no definite trend. Some simultaneous measurements of instantaneous void fraction and free surface fluctuations exhibited different features depending upon the phase-detection probe sensor location in the different regions of the roller. Further air-water measurements were conducted for several Froude numbers. The Froude dynamic similarity was tested in terms of the scale effects for air-water flow properties for Fr1 = 5.1.
Publications derived from the project
CHANSON, H., and CHACHEREAU, Y. (2013). "Scale Effects Affecting Two-Phase Flow Properties in Hydraulic Jump with Small Inflow Froude Number." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 45, pp. 234-242 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.11.014) (ISSN 0894-1777). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
CHACHEREAU, Y., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Free-Surface Fluctuations and Turbulence in Hydraulic Jumps." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 896-909 (DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2011.01.009) (ISSN 0894-1777). (PDF file) (Postprint at UQeSpace)
CHACHEREAU, Y., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Bubbly Flow Measurements in Hydraulic Jumps with Small Inflow Froude Numbers." International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 555-564 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2011.03.012) (ISSN 0301-9322). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
CHACHEREAU, Y., and CHANSON, H. (2011). "Air Entrainment and Scale Effects in Hydraulic Jumps with Small Froude Numbers." Proc. 34th IAHR World Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June-1 July, Engineers Australia Publication, Eric VALENTINE, Colin APELT, James BALL, Hubert CHANSON, Ron COX, Rob ETTEMA, George KUCZERA, Martin LAMBERT, Bruce MELVILLE and Jane SARGISON Editors, pp. 2388-2395 (ISBN 978-0-85825-868-6). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHACHEREAU, Y., and CHANSON, H. (2010). "Air-Water and Water Projections in Hydraulic Jumps." Proc. 17th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, 5-9 Dec., G.D. MALLINSON and J.E. CATER Eds., Paper 044, 4 pages (ISBN: 978-0-86869-129-9). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and CHACHEREAU (2010). "Air Bubble Entrainment and Water Projections in Hydraulic Jumps." 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow ICMF 2010, Tampa FL, USA, May 30-June 4, Gallery of Multiphase Flow, Poster presentation. (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHACHEREAU, Y., and CHANSON, H., (2010). "Free-Surface Turbulent Fluctuations and Air-Water Flow Measurements in Hydraulics Jumps with Small Inflow Froude Numbers." Hydraulic Model Report No. CH78/10, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 133 pages (ISBN 9781742720036). (PDF file at UQeSpace)

Environmental impact of tidal bores and fish egg dispersion

Student : Kok-Keng TAN

Study period : 2009-2010
A tidal bore is a series of waves propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising. It forms during the spring tide conditions when the tidal range exceeds 4 to 6 m and the flood tide is confined to a narrow funnelled estuary with low freshwater levels. Tidal bores are locally called mascaret, pororoca, burro, bono, benak and aegir. A tidal bore is associated with a massive mixing ofthe estuarine waters that stirs the organic matter and creates some rich fishing grounds. Its occurrence is essential to many ecological processes and the survival of unique eco-systems. The tidal bores are also part of the cultural heritage in many regions: the Qiantang River bore in China, the Severn River bore in UK, the Dordogne River in France. In this project, the environmental and ecological impacts of tidal bores are studied with a focus on fish egg dispersion.
Publications derived from the project
CHANSON, H., and TAN, K.K. (2011). "Turbulent Dispersion of Fish Eggs under Tidal Bores." Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Tech Science Press, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 403-418 (ISSN 1555-256X (Printed); 1555-2578 (Electronic)). (Postprint at UQeSpace) (PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and TAN, K.K. (2010). "Turbulent Mixing of Particles under Tidal Bores: an Experimental Analysis." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 641-649 (DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2010.512779 (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and TAN, K.K. (2010). "Particle Dispersion under Tidal Bores: Application to Sediments and Fish Eggs." Proc. 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow ICMF 2010, Tampa FL, USA, May 30-June 4, Paper No. 12.7.3, 9 pages (USB Memory Stick). (PDF in ICMF2010 Proceedings) (PDF file) (Record at UQeSpace)

Hastiong PointBasic study of turbulent mixing in sub-tropical estuary

Student : Mark TREVETHAN
TREVETHAN, M. (2008). "A Fundamental Study of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in a Small Subtropical Estuary." Ph.D. thesis, Dept of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 342 pages. (PDF file at UQeSpace) - 2008 University of Queensland Dean's award for Research Higher Degree Excellence (Top 10 % of UQ Theses graduating in 2008)

Study period : 2004-2007
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON and Ian RAMSAY
Dispersion of matter in natural river systems is of considerable importance, particularly in relation to the transport of nutrients, sediment and toxicants into ecosystems as a result of stormwater runoff and wastewater discharges. The project aims to improve our basic understanding of turbulent mixing and dispersion processes in subtropical estuaries. This will be achieved through a Ph.D. research project integrating fundamental hydrodynamics and environmental sciences. The project is part of of an active cross-institutional multidisciplinary research effort involving researchers from the Queensland EPA, the Department of Civil Engineering (UQ), the Department of Zoology and Entomology (UQ), and the Department of Mechanical Engineering at QUT.
Publications derived from the project
TREVETHAN, M., and CHANSON, H. (2009). "Turbulent Mixing in a Small Estuary: Detailed Measurements." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 81, No. 2, pp. 191-200 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2008.10.020) (ISSN 0272-7714). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TREVETHAN, M., CHANSON, H., and BROWN, R. (2008). "Turbulent Measurements in a Small Subtropical Estuary with Semi-Diurnal Tides." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 134, No. 11, pp. 1665-1670 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2008)134:11(1665)) (ISSN 0733-9429). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TREVETHAN, M., CHANSON, H., and BROWN, R. (2008). "Turbulence Characteristics of a Small Subtropical Estuary during and after some Moderate Rainfall." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 79, No. 4, pp. 661-670 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2008.06.006) (ISSN 0272-7714). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., TREVETHAN, M., and AOKI, S. (2008). "Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) in Small Estuary : Field Experience and Signal Post-Processing." Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 307-313 (DOI: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2008.03.003) (ISSN 0955-5986). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., TAKEUCHI, M., and TREVETHAN, M. (2008). "Using Turbidity and Acoustic Backscatter Intensity as Surrogate Measures of Suspended Sediment Concentration in a Small Sub-Tropical Estuary." Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 88, No. 4, Sept., pp. 1406-1416 (DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.07.009) (ISSN 0301-4797). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TREVETHAN, M., and CHANSON, H. (2007). "Detailed Measurements during a Transient Front in a Small Subtropical Estuary." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 73, No. 3-4, pp. 735-742 (DOI 10.1016/j.ecss.2007.03.014) (ISSN 0272-7714). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TREVETHAN, M., CHANSON, H., and TAKEUCHI, M. (2007). "Continuous High-Frequency Turbulence and Sediment Concentration Measurements in an Upper Estuary." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 73, No. 1-2, pp. 341-350 (DOI:10.1016/j.ecss.2007.01.014) (ISSN 0272-7714). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and TREVETHAN, M. (2007). "Turbulence in Small Sub-Tropical Estuary with Semi-Diurnal Tides." Pearl River, Renmin Zhujiang, No. 1, Feb., pp. 16-22 (ISSN 1001-9235) (in Chinese).  (PDF file at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and TREVETHAN, M. (2006). "Turbulence in Small Sub-tropical Estuary with Semi-Diurnal Tides." Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Estuaries and Coasts (ICEC-2006), Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, November 28-30, Invited paper, Guangdong Economy Publ., Vol. I, pp. 140-151 (ISBN 7-80728-422-6). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., TAKEUCHI, M., and TREVETHAN, M. (2006). "Using Turbidity and Acoustic Backscatter Intensity as Surrogate Measures of Suspended Sediment Concentration. Application to a Sub-Tropical Estuary (Eprapah Creek)." Report No. CH60/06, Div. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Aug, 44 pages (ISBN 1864998628). (PDF version at UQeSpace)
TREVETHAN, M., CHANSON, H., and BROWN, R.J. (2006). "Two Series of Detailed Turbulence Measurements in a Small Subtropical Estuarine System." Report No. CH58/06, Div. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, March, 153 pages (ISBN 1864998520). (PDF version at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., TREVETHAN, M., and AOKI, S. (2005). "Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) in a Small Estuarine System. Field Experience and "Despiking"." Proc. 31th Biennial IAHR Congress, Seoul, Korea, B.H. JUN, S.I. LEE, I.W. SEO and G.W. CHOI Editors, Theme E2, Paper 0161, pp. 3954-3966 (ISBN 89 87898 24 5). (Download PDF file)


Choctaw 8AFree-surface aeration on embankment stepped spillways

Student : Carlos A. GONZALEZ

GONZALEZ, C.A. (2005). "An Experimental Study of Free-Surface Aeration on Embankment Stepped Chutes." Ph.D. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. (PDF version at EprintsUQ)
Study period : 2001-2005 (Ph.D. project)
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON and John MACINTOSH
Stepped chutes have been used as hydraulic structures to dissipate energy, to enhance aeration rate in the flow and to comply with aesthetical functions. Their design has changed through the centuries. In recent years, new construction techniques and materials (Roller Compacted Concrete RCC, rip-rap gabions, wire-meshed gabions, etc.) together with the development of new applications (e.g. re-aeration cascades, fish ladders and embankment overtopping protection or secondary spillways) have allowed cheaper construction of stepped chutes, increasing the interest in stepped chute design.
This study details an experimental investigation of physical air-water flow characteristics down a stepped spillway conducted in two laboratory models with moderate slopes: the first model was a 3.15 m long stepped chute with a 15.9-deg slope comprising two interchangeable-height steps (h = 0.1 m and h = 0.05 m); the second model was a 2.5 m long, stepped channel with a 21.8-deg slope comprising 10 steps (h = 0.1 m). Different arrangements of turbulence manipulators (vanes) were also placed throughout the chute in the second model. Measurements were conducted using single and double tip conductivity probes at multiple span wise locations and at streamwise distances along the cavity between step edges to obtain a complete three-dimensional representation of the flow. Although the present study was conducted for two moderate slope chutes, it is believed that the outcomes are valid for a wider range of chute geometry and flow conditions.
The present thesis work included a twofold approach. Firstly, the study provided a detailed investigation of the energy dissipative properties of a stepped channel, based upon detailed airwater flow characteristics measurements conducted with sub-millimetric conductivity probes. Secondly, the study focused on the microscopic scale properties of the airwater flow, using the experimental data to quantify the microscopic scale physical processes (e.g. momentum transfer, shear layer development, vertical mixing, airbubbles/water-droplets break-up and coalescence etc.) that are believed to increase the flow resistance in stepped canals. The study highlighted the tridimensionality of skimming flows and hinted new means of enhancing flow resistance by manipulating turbulence in the stepped chute. The introduction of vanes demonstrated simple turbulence manipulation and form drag modification that could lead to more efficient designs in terms of energy rate dissipation without significant structural load on the stepped chute.

Publications derived from the project
CHANSON, H., and GONZALEZ, C.A. (2004). "Recent Advances in Stepped Spillway Design: Air-Water Flow on Stepped Chutes, Embankment Dam Stepped Spillway and Other Considerations." in "Fluvial, Environmental & Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering", Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands, Proc. International Workshop on State-of-the-Art Hydraulic Engineering, 16-19 Feb. 2004, Bari, Italy, M. MOSSA, Y. YASUDA and H. CHANSON Ed., pp. 81-97 (ISBN 04 1535 899 X). (PDF version at UQespace) (PDF Version at EprintsUQ) (Leaflet and Order Form)

GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2008). "Turbulence and Cavity Recirculation in Air-Water Skimming Flows on a Stepped Spillway."  Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 65-72 (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2008). "Turbulence Manipulation in Embankment Stepped Chute Flows: an Experimental Study." European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 388-408 (DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2007.09.003) (ISSN 0997-7546). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
GONZALEZ, C.A., TAKAHASHI, M., and CHANSON, H. (2008). "An Experimental Study of Effects of Step Roughness in Skimming Flows on Stepped Chutes." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 46, No. Extra Issue 1, pp. 24-35 (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2007). "Experimental Measurements of Velocity and Pressure Distribution on a Large Broad-Crested Weir." Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 18, No. 3-4, pp. 107-113 (DOI 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2007.05.005) (ISSN 0955-5986). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2007). "Diseno Hidráulico de Vertedores Escalonados con Pendientes Moderadas: Metodologia Basada en un Estudio Experimental." ('Hydraulic Design of Embankment Stepped Chutes: A Methodology based on an Experimental Study.') Ingenieria Hidraulica en Mexico (Hydraulic Engineering in Mexico), Vol. 22, No. 2, II Epoca, April-June, pp. 5-19 & Front Cover (ISSN 0186-4076) (in Spanish). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2007). "Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways and Downstream Energy Dissipators for Embankment Dams." Dam Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 223-244 (ISSN 0 617 00563 X). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TAKAHASHI, M., GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2006). "Self-Aeration and Turbulence in a Stepped Channel: Influence of Cavity Surface Roughness." International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 32, pp. 1370-1385 (DOI:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2006.07.001) (ISSN 0301-9322). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2006). "Flow Characteristics of Skimming Flows in Stepped Channels. Discussion." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 132, No. 5, pp. 537-539 (ISSN0733-9429). (PDF version at EprintsUQ)
CHANSON, H., and GONZALEZ, C.A. (2005). "Physical Modelling and Scale Effects of Air-Water Flows on Stepped Spillways." Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE, Vol. 6A, No. 3, March, pp. 243-250 (ISSN 1009-3095). (Download PDF file)
GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2004). "Interactions between Cavity Flow and Main Stream Skimming Flows: an Experimental Study." Can Jl of Civ. Eng., Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 33-44 (ISSN 0315-1468). (Download PDF file)

GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2006). "Air Entrainment and Energy Dissipation on Embankment Stepped Spillways." Proc. International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, IAHR, Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela, Recent Developments on Hydraulic Structures, from Hybrid Modeling to Operation and Repairs, A. MARCANO and A. MARTINEZ Ed., pp. 487-497 (ISBN 980 12 2177 1). (PDF version at UQeSpace) (PDF version at EprintsUQ) (Preprint)
GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2006). "Flow Resistance and Design Guidelines for Embankment Stepped Chutes." Proc. International Symposium on Dams in the Societies of the 21st Century, ICOLD-SPANCOLD, Barcelona, 18-23 June, L. BERGA, J.M. BUIL, E. BOFILL, J.C. DE CEA, J.A. CARCIA-PEREZ, G. MANUECO, J. POLIMON, A. SORIANO and J. YAHUE Editors, Balkema Publ., Taylor & Francis Group, Vol. 1, pp. 1015-1022 (ISBN 0 415 40423 1). (PDF version at UQeSpace) (PDF version at EprintsUQ [Corrected version])
GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2005). "Experimental Study of Turbulence Manipulation in Stepped Spillways. Implications on Flow Resistance in Skimming Flows." Proc. 31th Biennial IAHR Congress, Seoul, Korea, B.H. JUN, S.I. LEE, I.W. SEO and G.W. CHOI Editors, Theme D.7, Paper 0057, pp. 2616-2626 (ISBN 89 87898 24 5). (Download PDF file)
GONZALEZ, C., and CHANSON, H. (2004). "Effects of Turbulence Manipulation in Skimming Flows: An Experimental Study." Proc. 15th Australasian Fluid Mech. Conf., AFMC, Sydney, Australia, M. BEHNIA, W. LIN & G.D. McBAIN Ed., Paper AFMC00104, 4 pages (CD-ROM) (ISBN 1-864-87695-6). (Download PDF file)
GONZALEZ, C.A., and CHANSON, H. (2004). "Scale Effects in Moderate Slope Stepped Spillways. Experimental Studies in Air-Water Flows." Proc. 8th National Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering, IEAust., Gold Coast, Australia, H. CHANSON and J. MACINTOSH Ed., 8 pages (CD-ROM) (ISBN 085825 850 1). (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and GONZALEZ, C.A. (2004). "Interactions between Free-surface, Free-stream Turbulence and Cavity Recirculation in Open Channel Flows: Measurements and Turbulence Manipulation." Proc. 5th Intl Conf. on Multiphase Flow, Yokohama, Japan, Y. MATSUMOTO, K. HISHIDA, A. TOMIYAMA, K. MISHIMA and S. HOSOKAWA editors, Paper 104, 14 pages. (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and GONZALEZ, C.A. (2004). "Stepped Spillways for Embankment dams: Review, Progress and Development in Overflow Hydraulics." Proc. Intl Conf. on Hydraulics of Dams and River Structures, Tehran, Iran, Balkema Publ., The Netherlands, F. YAZDANDOOST and J. ATTARI Ed., pp. 287-294 (ISBN 90 5809 632 7). (Also CD-ROM, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 90 5809 683 4.). (download PDF file)
GONZALEZ-RODRIGUEZ, C.A. (2003). "Experimental Study of Free-Surface Aeration and Turbulent Processes occurring down an Embankment Dam Stepped Spillway." Proc. 30th IAHR Biennial Congress, J.F. Kennedy Student Paper, Thessaloniki, Greece, J. GANOULIS and P. PRINOS Ed., pp. 9-16 (ISBN 960-243-600-X). (Download PDF File)

GONZALEZ, C.A., TAKAHASHI, M., and CHANSON, H. (2005). "Effects of Step Roughness in Skimming Flows: an Experimental Study." Research Report No. CE160, Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, July, 149 pages (ISBN 1864998105). (PDF version at UQeSpace) (Download PDF File) (PDF Version at EprintsUQ)

International conference presentation by Carlos GONZALEZ
GONZALEZ-RODRIGUEZ, C.A. (2003). "Experimental Study of Free-Surface Aeration and Turbulent Processes occurring down an Embankment Dam Stepped Spillway." Proc. 30th IAHR Biennial Congress, J.F. Kennedy Student Paper, Thessaloniki, Greece, J. GANOULIS and P. PRINOS Ed., pp. 9-16 (ISBN 960-243-600-X). (Download PDF File)

KoorawathaReservoir siltation and catchment management in Australia

Student : D.Patrick JAMES

Study period : 1999-2006 (Ph.D. project)
Several Australian dams failed slowly because of reservoir siltation, although the authorities do not acknowledge it. The writer investigated reservoir siltation cases (e.g. CHANSON 1998, CHANSON and JAMES 1998a,b). Between 1890 and 1960, numerous dams became fully-silted, mostly in New South Wale. Some reservoirs became fully-silted in less than 20 years, and their failure affected the local  economy. A list of over 30 rapid reservoir siltation events was compiled (CHANSON and JAMES 1998b). It includes town water supply reservoirs, railway dams and mining reservoirs. The analysis of (well-documented) extreme siltation events in Australia suggests that sedimentation rates in Australia were high (CHANSON and JAMES 1999, CHANSON 1998). Sedimentation problems were experienced mostly with small to medium size reservoirs : i.e., catchment area less than 100 km2 typically. In contrast large reservoirs have not been sedimenting rapidly at the exception of Melton, Eppalock and Eildon reservoirs, all in Victoria. Since the 1950s, lower siltation rates have been experienced on the Australia continent. The decrease in reservoir sedimentation is related to the introduction of new farming techniques, new land conservation practices and an awareness of soil erosion problems. The trend is characteristic in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Queensland.
The main findings of the study are : [1] reservoir sedimentation has been a serious problem in Australia, [2] Australian engineers could draw upon local and overseas experience, and from past failures, [3] reservoir siltation affects the dam safety, creating high loads on the dam wall (CHANSON and JAMES 1999). Several reservoirs became fully-silted because the designers did not take into account correctly the soil erosion and sediment transport processes, and no soil conservation practice was introduced.Today the society expects the useful life of a reservoir to be more over 30 to 50 years. One lesson from past experience is the need to consider the dam, the reservoir and the catchment as a complete system which cannot be dissociated. Soil erosion and water runoff lead into the streams some sediment material that is trapped downstream by the dam wall. A total catchment management policy must be considered from the early stage of a reservoir design. Fully-silted reservoirs stand as a source of embarrassment for the scientists and the public. Each reservoir failure must be a valuable teaching and pedagogic tool to heighten the awareness of students, professionals and local authorities and of the public. Society must learn from its mistakes, not to repeat them again

Publications derived from the project
CHANSON, H., and JAMES, D.P. (2002). "Historical Development of Arch Dams : from Cut-Stone Arches to Modern Concrete Designs." Aust. Civil Engrg. Trans., IEAust, Vol. CE43, pp. 39-56 & front cover  (ISSN 0819-0259). (Download PDF file) Read more about Arch Dam History .
CHANSON, H., and JAMES, D.P. (1999-2000). "Railway Dams in Australia : Six Historical Structures." Trans. Newcomen Society, Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 283-303 (ISSN 0372-0187).
JAMES, D.P., and CHANSON, H. (2000). "Cement by the Barrel and Cask." Concrete in Australia, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 10-13 (ISSN1440-656X). (PDF Version at EprintsUQ) (Download ZIP file) (See also http://www.engaust.com.au/magazines/cia/0900coverstory.html)
JAMES, D.P., and CHANSON, H. (1999). "Australian Arch Dams from 1851 to 1958." ANCOLD Bulletin, No. 113, Dec., pp. 109-122 (ISSN 0045-0731).
CHANSON, H., and JAMES, D.P. (1999). "Une Histoire Revisée des Barrages-Voûtes (de l'Antiquité à 1900)." ('A Revised History of Arch Dams (from Antiquity to 1900).') Annales des Ponts et Chaussées, Ingénieur Science Société, Vol. 91, Sept., pp. 76-83 (ISSN 0152-9668) (in French). (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and JAMES, P. (1998). "Teaching Case Studies in Reservoir Siltation and Catchment Erosion." Intl Jl of Engineering Education, Vol.14, No. 4, pp. 265-275 (ISSN 0949-149X). (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and JAMES, P. (1998). "Rapid Reservoir Sedimentation of Four Historic Thin Arch Dams in Australia." Jl of Performance of Constructed Facilities, ASCE, Vol. 12, No. 2, May, pp. 85-92. Errata : Vol. 12, No. 3, p.169. (download PDF file)

CHANSON, H., and JAMES, D.P. (1999). "Siltation of Australian Reservoirs : some Observations and Dam Safety Implications." Proc. 28th IAHR Congress, Graz, Austria, Session B5, 6 pages. (download PDF file)
JAMES, D.P., and CHANSON, H. (1999). "A Study of Extreme Reservoir Siltation in Australia."  Proc. Water 99 Joint Congress, 25th Hydroogy & Water Res. Symp. and 2nd Intl Conf. Water Res. & Environ. Research, Brisbane, Australia, Vol. 2, pp. 1109-1114 (ISBN 185 825 7165).

CHANSON, H., and JAMES, D.P. (1998). "Historical Development of Arch Dams in Australia : from Advanced Designs to Engineering Failures." Research Report CE 157, Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, August (ISBN 1 86499 0791). (PDF version at EprintsUQ)

CHANSON, H., and JAMES, D.P. (2006). "Learning from Experience ?" Intl Water Power & Dam Construction, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 42-26 (ISSN 0306-400X). (PDF Version at EprintsUQ)
JAMES, D.P., and CHANSON, H. (2000). "One Hundred Years+ of Riparian Legislation in New South Wales." Australian Environmental Law News, NELA, No. 3, Sept., pp. 39-45 (ISSN 1320 9647).

Websites
History of arch dams ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/arch_dam.html}
Extreme reservoir siltation ... {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/res_silt.html}
JAMES, D.P., and CHANSON, H. (2004). "Historical Development of Arch Dams. From Roman Arch Dams to Modern Concrete Designs." Internet Resource, TRAIANVS. Internet address : {http://traianus.rediris.es/}


La Grande 2Flow aeration and air entrainment on low-gradient stepped cascades

Student : Luke TOOMBES

TOOMBES, L. (2002). "Experimental Study of Air-Water Flow Properties on Low-Gradient Stepped Cascades." Ph.D. thesis, Dept of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland. (PDF version at EprintsUQ)
Study period : 1996-2001 (Ph.D. project)
Supervisors: Hubert CHANSON and John MACINTOSH
Stepped cascades are recognised for both aeration potential and energy dissipation, and have been employed in hydraulic structures for over 3,500 years.  This study presents a detailed investigation of both the macro and micro-scale flow properties on a low-gradient cascade (3.4 deg slope). Research is conducted on two large-size physical models: a 24m long multi-step cascade (10-2.4m long steps), and a single-step model with identical step height and length. The large size of the model allows near full-scale data acquisition under controlled flow conditions, minimising potential scale effects. Significant outcomes of theair-water flow analysis include:
- Air-concentration distribution: The air-concentration distribution at the lower nappe of free-falling jet shows good agreement with an analytical solution of the diffusion equation. The experimental results from the study, and a reanalysis of existing data, indicate a distinct relationship between the turbulent diffusivity in the shear layer and distance from the step brink. This contradicts earlier investigations that assumed constant diffusivity.
-Velocity distribution: A theoretical analysis of the momentum transfer process imparts an improved understanding of the momentum transfer and velocity redistribution within the free-falling jet. An analytical solution based on twodimensional wake flow is developed, superseding existing solutions based upon a monophase free-mixing layer.
- Bubble-frequency distribution: A quasi-parabolic relationship between bubble frequency and time-average air concentration across a cross-section is observed. A theoretical explanation for the parabolic relationship is developed, and two correction factors are introduced to provide a better representation of the experimental data.
- Air-bubble and water-droplet size distributions: Chord-length distributions are compared with standard probability distributions, showing good agreement with standard Weibull, gamma and log-normal probability distributions within various regions of the flow on the step.
A parallel investigation of the oxygen aeration efficiency of the stepped cascade was conducted. Measured air-water property data were used to calculate the air-water interface area in bubbly flow, and to estimate the theoretical aeration efficiency of the stepped cascade based upon the integration of the mass transfer equation. The aeration performance of the stepped cascade model is also measured experimentally in terms of dissolved oxygen content. This analysis allows a unique, successful comparison of experimental dissolved oxygen measurements with the numerical integration of the mass transfer equation (TOOMBES and CHANSON 2005).

International Award
2004 American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental and Water Resources Institute (ASCE-EWRI) award for the best practice paper in the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.

CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2002). "Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in a Stepped Storm Waterway: an Experimental Study." Jl of Irrigation and Drainage Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 128, No. 5, pp. 305-315 (ISSN 0733-9437). (PDF file at UQeSpace)

Publications derived from the project
TOOMBES, L., and CHANSON, H. (2008). "Interfacial Aeration and Bubble Count Rate Distributions in a Supercritical Flow Past a Backward-Facing Step." International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 427-436 (doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2008.01.005) (ISSN 0301-9322). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TOOMBES, L., and CHANSON, H. (2008). "Flow Patterns in Nappe Flow Regime down Low Gradient Stepped Chutes." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 4-14 (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TOOMBES, L., and CHANSON, H. (2007). "Free-Surface Aeration and Momentum Exchange at a Bottom Outlet." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 100-110 (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2007). "Characteristics of Free Overfall for Supercritical Flows. Discussion." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, NRC, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1025-1026 (DOI:10.1139/L07-102) (ISSN 0315-1468). (PDF file at UQeSpace) (Preprint at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2007). "Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes: the Transition Flow. Rejoinder." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 45, No. 1, p. 141 (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
TOOMBES, L., and CHANSON, H. (2005). "Air-Water Mass Transfer on a Stepped Waterway." Jl of Environ. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 131, No. 10, pp. 1377-1386 (ISSN 0733-9372). (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2004). "Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes: the Transition Flow." Jl of Hyd. Res., IAHR, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 43-54 (ISSN 0022-1686).  (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2003). "Strong Interactions between Free-Surface Aeration and Turbulence in an Open Channel Flow." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 525-535 (ISSN 0894-1777). (Download PDF File)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2002). "Air-Water Flows down Stepped chutes : Turbulence and Flow Structure Observations." Intl Jl of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 28, No. 11, pp. 1737-1761 (ISSN 0301-9322). (Download PDF File)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2002). "Energy Dissipation and Air Entrainment in a Stepped Storm Waterway: an Experimental Study." Jl of Irrigation and Drainage Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 128, No. 5, pp. 305-315 (ISSN 0733-9437). (Download PDF File) - 2004 American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental and Water Resources Institute (ASCE-EWRI) Award for the best practice paper in the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering (Award document).
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2002). "Experimental Study of Gas-Liquid Interfacial Properties in a Stepped Cascade Flow." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 241-263 (ISSN 1567-7419). (Download PDF File)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2002). "Experimental Investigations of Air Entrainment in Transition and Skimming Flows down a Stepped Chute." Can. Jl of Civil Eng., Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 145-156. (ISSN 0315-1468). (Download PDF File)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (1998). "Supercritical Flow at an Abrupt Drop : Flow Patterns and Aeration." Can. Jl of Civil Eng., Vol. 25, No. 5, Oct., pp. 956-966 (ISSN 0315-1468). (download PDF file)
BRATTBERG, T., CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (1998). "Experimental Investigations of Free-Surface Aeration in the Developing Flow of Two-Dimensional Water Jets." Jl of Fluids Eng., Trans. ASME, Vol. 120, No. 4, pp. 738-744 (ISSN 0098-2202) (download PDF file)

TOOMBES, L., and CHANSON, H. (2005). "Air Entrainment and Velocity Redistribution in a Bottom Outlet Jet Flow." Proc. 31th Biennial IAHR Congress, Seoul, Korea, B.H. JUN, S.I. LEE, I.W. SEO and G.W. CHOI Editors, Theme D7, Paper 0080, pp. 2716-2726 (ISBN 89 87898 24 5). (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2001). "Strong Interactions between Free-Surface Aeration and Turbulence down a Staircase Channel."  Proc. 14th Australasian Fluid Mech. Conf., Adelaide, Australia, pp. 841-844 (ISBN 1 876346 33 7). (download PDF file)
TOOMBES, L., and CHANSON, H. (2000). "Air-Water Flow and Gas Transfer at Aeration Cascades: a Comparative Study of Smooth and Stepped Chutes." Intl Workshop on Hydraulics of Stepped Spillways, Zürich, Switzerland, H.E. MINOR & W.H. HAGER Editors, Balkema Publ., pp. 77-84 (ISBN 90 5809 135X). (download PDF file)
BRATTBERG, T., TOOMBES, L., and CHANSON, H. (1998). "Developing Air-Water Shear Layers of Two-Dimensional Water Jets Discharging into Air." Proc. 1998 ASME Fluids Eng. Conf., FEDSM'98, Washington DC, USA, June 21-25, Paper FEDSM98-4805, 7 pages (ISBN 0 7918 1950 7). (downloadPDF file)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (1998). "Air-Water Flow Structures at an Abrupt Drop with Supercritical Flow." Proc. 3rd Intl Conf. Multiphase Flow, ICMF'98, Lyon, France, Session 2.2.5, Paper No. 119, 6 pages. (downloadPDF file)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (1997). "Energy Dissipation in Stepped Waterway." Proc. 27th IAHR Congress, San Francisco, USA, Vol. D, F.M. HOLLY Jr. and A. ALSAFFAR Ed., pp. 595-600 (ISBN 0 7844 0274 4). (Download PDF file)

CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2007). "Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes: the Transition Flow. Rejoinder." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 45, No. 1, p. 141 (ISSN 0022-1686). (PDF file at UQeSpace)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2000). "Stream Reaeration in Nonuniform Flow: Macroroughness Enhancement. Discussion." Jl of Hyd. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 126, No. 3, pp. 222-224 (ISSN 0733-9429). (Download PDF file)


CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (2001). "Experimental Investigations of Air Entrainment in Transition and Skimming Flows down a Stepped Chute. Application to Embankment Overflow Stepped Spillways." Research Report No. CE158, Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, July, 74 pages (ISBN 1 864995297). (Download PDF files : Part 1 and Part 2) (PDF version at EprintsUQ)
CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (1997). "Flow Aeration at Stepped cascades." Research Report No. CE155, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Australia, June, 110 pages (ISBN 0 86776 730 8). (PDF version at EprintsUQ)


International conference presentation by Luke TOOMBES
BRATTBERG, T., TOOMBES, L., and CHANSON, H. (1998). "Developing Air-Water Shear Layers of Two-Dimensional Water Jets Discharging into Air." Proc. 1998 ASME Fluids Eng. Conf., FEDSM'98, Washington DC, USA, June 21-25, Paper FEDSM98-4805, 7 pages (ISBN 0 7918 1950 7). (downloadPDF file)


Air bubble entrainment by plunging water jets

Student : T. BRATTBERG
Study period : 1995-2001 (Ph.D. project)

Publications derived from the project
CHANSON, H., and BRATTBERG, T. (2000). "Experimental Study of the Air-Water Shear Flow in a Hydraulic Jump." Intl Jl of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 583-607 (ISSN 0301-9322).  (download PDF file)
BRATTBERG, T., CHANSON, H., and TOOMBES, L. (1998). "Experimental Investigations of Free-Surface Aeration in the Developing Flow of Two-Dimensional Water Jets." Jl of Fluids Eng., Trans. ASME, Vol. 120, No. 4, pp. 738-744 (ISSN 0098-2202) (download PDF file)
BRATTBERG, T., and CHANSON, H. (1998). "Air Entrapment and Air Bubble Dispersion at Two-Dimensional Plunging Water Jets." Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 53, No. 24, Dec., pp. 4113-4127 (ISSN 0009-2509). (download PDF file)

CHANSON, H., and BRATTBERG, T. (1998). "Air Entrainment by Two-Dimensional Plunging Jets : the Impingement Region and the Very-Near Flow Field." Proc. 1998 ASME Fluids Eng. Conf., FEDSM'98, Washington DC, USA, June 21-25, Paper FEDSM98-4806, 8 pages (ISBN 0 7918 1950 7). (downloadPDF file)

BRATTBERG, T., TOOMBES, L., and CHANSON, H. (1998). "Developing Air-Water Shear Layers of Two-Dimensional Water Jets Discharging into Air." Proc. 1998 ASME Fluids Eng. Conf., FEDSM'98, Washington DC, USA, June 21-25, Paper FEDSM98-4805, 7 pages (ISBN 0 7918 1950 7). (downloadPDF file)
CHANSON, H., and BRATTBERG, T. (1998). "Entrainment, Dispersion and Diffusion of Air Bubbles by Plunging Water Jet." Proc. 3rd Intl Conf. Multiphase Flow, ICMF'98, Lyon, France, Session 2.2.6, Paper No. 120, 6 pages. (download PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and BRATTBERG, T. (1996). "Air-Water Bubbly Flow in Free-Shear Layers." Proc. 1996 ASME Fluids Eng. Conf., San Diego, USA, ASME-FED Vol. 236, Vol. 1, pp. 357-364 (ISBN 0 7918 1791 1). (download PDF file)

CHANSON, H., and BRATTBERG, T. (1997). "Experimental Investigations of Air Bubble Entrainment in Developing Shear Layers." Report CH48/97, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Australia, Oct., 309 pages (ISBN 0 86776 748 0). (Click here for Order Form)

Wave breakingThe role of air entrainment in breaking waves

Student : A. HOQUE (Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan)

HOQUE, A. (2002). "Air Bubble Entrainment by Breaking Waves and Associated Energy Dissipation." Ph.D. thesis, Dept of Architecture and Civil Eng., Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Japan, 151 pages.
Study period : 1999-2002 (Ph.D. project)
Supervisors: Shin-ichi AOKI and Hubert CHANSON
Publications derived from the project
HOQUE, A., and AOKI, S. (2005). "Distributions of Void Fraction under Breaking Waves in the Surf Zone." Ocean Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 14-15, pp. 1829-1840.
HOQUE, A., and AOKI, S. (2005). "A Quantitative Analysis of Energy Dissipation among Three Typical Air Entrainment." Env. Fluid Mech., Vol. 5, pp. 325-340.
CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and HOQUE, A. (2004). "Physical Modelling and Similitude of Air Bubble Entrainment at Vertical Circular Plunging Jets." Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 59, No. 4, pp. 747-754 (ISSN 0009-2509).  (Download PDF file)
HOQUE, A. (2004). "Introducing of Air Bubble Effects on a Simplified Model for Wave Height." Indian Jl of Pure & Applied Math,, Vol. 35, No. 2 , pp. 167-176.

CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and HOQUE, A. (2002). "Scaling Bubble Entrainment and Dispersion in Vertical Circular Plunging Jet Flows: Freshwater versus Seawater." Proc. 5th Intl Conf. on Hydrodynamics ICHD 2002., Tainan, Taiwan, H.H. HWUNG, J.F. LEE & K.S. HWANG Editors, pp. 431-436. (Download PDF File)
CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and HOQUE, A. (2002). "Similitude of Air Entrainment at Vertical Circular Plunging Jets." Proc. 2002 ASME Joint US-European Fluids Eng. Conf., FEDSM-2002, Montréal, Canada, Paper FEDSM2002-31024, 6 pages (CD-ROM) (ISBN 0-7918-3600-2). (download PDF file)
HOQUE, A., and AOKI, S. (2001). "Energy Transformation due to Air Bubble Entrainment by Vertical Plunging Jet and Hydraulic Jump." Proc. 1st Asian and Pacific Coastal Eng. Conf., Dailan, China, Vol. 1, pp. 136-144.

CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and HOQUE, A. (2002). "Similitude of  Air Bubble Entrainment and Dispersion in Vertical Circular Plunging Jet Flows. An Experimental Study with Freshwater, Salty Freshwater and Seawater." Coastal/Ocean Engineering Report, No. COE02-1, Dept. of Architecture and Civil Eng., Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan, 94 pages. (Download PDF files) (PDF version at EprintsUQ)

DolphinsAir entrainment at plunging breakers and its effect on the shoreline

Student : Mamoru MARUYAMA (Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan)

MARUYAMA, M. (2000). "Water Level Rise and its Propagation caused by Entrained Air  Bubbles at Plunging Breakers." Masters thesis, Dept. of Architecture and Civil Engrg.,  Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan, 114 pages (in Japanese).
Study period : 1999-2001 (Masters project)
Supervisors: Shin-ichi AOKI and Hubert CHANSON
Publications derived from the project
CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and MARUYAMA, M. (2002). "An Experimental Study of Tsunami Runup on Dry and Wet Horizontal Coastlines." International Journal of the Tsunami Society, Science of Tsunami Hazards, Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 278-293 (ISSN 8755-6839). (Download PDF File)
CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and MARUYAMA, M. (2002). "Unsteady Air Bubble Entrainment and Detrainment at a Plunging Breaker: Dominant Time Scales and Similarity of Water Level Variations." Coastal Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 139-157 (ISSN 0378-3839). (Download PDF File)
CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and MARUYAMA, M. (2002). "Unsteady Two-Dimensional Orifice Flow: a Large-Size Experimental Investigation." Jl of Hyd. Res., IAHR, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 63-71 (ISSN 0022-1686).  (Download PDF File)

CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and MARUYAMA, M. (2000). "Unsteady Air Bubble Entrainment at a Plunging Breaker : a Full-scale Modelling" Proc. Euromech Colloquium No. 416, Geona, Italy, September 20-22, Interactions of Strong Turbulence with Free Surfaces, Book of abstracts, pp. 47-48.
AOKI, S., CHANSON, H., and MARUYAMA, M. (2000). "Water Level Rise Caused by Entrained Air Bubbles at Plunging Breakers: an Experimental Study" Proc. 27th Intl Conf. Coastal Engineering, Book of abstracts, Sydney, Australia, July 16-21, R. Cox Editor, Vol. 1, Poster 3, 2 pages (ISBN 085825 722X).

CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and MARUYAMA, M. (2000). "Unsteady Two-Dimensional Orifice Flow: an Experimental Study." Coastal/Ocean Engineering Report, No. COE00-1, Dept. of Architecture and Civil Eng., Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan, 29 pages.
CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and MARUYAMA, M. (2000). "Experimental Investigations of Wave Runup Downstream of Nappe Impact. Applications to Flood Wave Resulting from Dam Overtopping and Tsunami Wave Runup." Coastal/Ocean Engineering Report, No. COE00-2, Dept. of Architecture and Civil Eng., Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan, 38 pages.
CHANSON, H., AOKI, S., and MARUYAMA, M. (1999). "Air Bubble Entrainment at Plunging Breakers and its Effect on Long Period Waves: an Experimental study." Coastal/Ocean Engineering Report, No. COE99-1, Dept. of Architecture and Civil Eng., Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan, July, 41 pages.<>


Rainbow beachAeration due to Breaking Waves

Student : Peter D. CUMMINGS
CUMMINGS, P.D. (1996). "Aeration due to Breaking Waves." Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Civil Engrg., University of Queensland, Australia, 523 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2015.70). (PDF Version at UQeSpace)
Study period : 1992-1995 (Ph.D. project)
Supervisor: Hubert CHANSON and Colin APELT
Publications derived from the project
CUMMINGS, P.D., and CHANSON, H. (1999). "An Experimental Study of Individual Air Bubble Entrainment at a Planar Plunging Jet." Chem. Eng. Research and Design, Trans. IChemE, Part A, Vol. 77, No. A2, pp. 159-164 (ISSN 0263-8762). (download PDF file)
CUMMINGS, P.D. (1998). "The Growth of Wind Waves Estimated using a New Irrotational Finite Amplitude Water Wave Model." Jl of Coastal Research, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 1354-1362.
CUMMINGS, P.D., and CHANSON, H. (1997). "Air Entrainment in the Developing Flow Region of Plunging Jets. Part 1 Theoretical Development." Jl of Fluids Eng., Trans. ASME, Vol. 119, No. 3, pp. 597-602 (ISSN 0098-2202).  (download PDF file)
CUMMINGS, P.D., and CHANSON, H. (1997). "Air Entrainment in the Developing Flow Region of Plunging Jets. Part 2 : Experimental." Jl of Fluids Eng., Trans. ASME, Vol. 119, No. 3, pp. 603-608 (ISSN 0098-2202).  (download PDF file) {Databank}
CHANSON, H., and CUMMINGS, P.D. (1994). "Effects of Plunging Breakers on the Gas Contents in the Oceans." Marine Technology Society Journal, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 22-32 (ISSN 0025-3324). (Download PDF file)

CUMMINGS, P.D., and CHANSON, H. (1998). "Individual Air Bubble Entrainment at a Planar Plunging Jet with Near-Inception Flow Conditions." Proc. 13th Australasian Fluid Mech. Conf., Melbourne, Australia, 13-18 December, M.C. THOMPSON & K. HOURIGAN Ed., Vol. 1, pp. 251-254 (ISBN 0 7326 2044 9).
CHANSON, H., and CUMMINGS, P.D. (1994). "Modelling Air Bubble Entrainment by Plunging Breakers." Proc. Intl Symp. : Waves - Physical and Numerical Modelling, IAHR, Vancouver, Canada, M. ISAACSON and M. QUICK Edit., Vol. 2, pp. 783-792 (ISBN 0-88865-364-6). (PDF Version at EprintsUQ)
CUMMINGS, P.D. (1994). "Gas Transfer at Overfalls and Drop Structures." Proc. Intl Conf. on Hydraulics in Civil Eng., IEAust., Brisbane, Australia, 15-17 Feb., pp. 105-109.
CHANSON, H., and CUMMINGS, P.D. (1993). "Prediction of Bubble Entrainment due to Storm Waves." Proc. 25th IAHR Congress, Tokyo, Japan, paper C3-2, Vol. 4, pp. 80-87.

CHANSON, H., and CUMMINGS, P.D. (1994). "An Experimental Study on Air Carryunder due to Plunging Liquid Jet - Discussion." Intl Jl of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 667-770 (ISSN 0301-9322). (Download PDF file)

CUMMINGS, P.D., and CHANSON, H. (1997). "Air Entrainment in the Developing Flow Region of Plunging Jets. Extended Electronic Manuscript." Jl of Fluids Engineering - Data Bank, ASME (Internet address : http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/) (Electronic Files : 6,904 kBytes) (ISSN 0098-2202). {Databank}

CHANSON, H., and CUMMINGS, P.D. (1996). "Air-Water Interface Area in Supercritical Flows down Small-Slope Chutes." Research Report No. CE151, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Australia, Feb., 67 pages (ISBN 0 86776 635 2).  (PDF version at EprintsUQ)
CHANSON, H., and CUMMINGS, P.D. (1992). "Aeration of the Ocean due to Plunging Breaking Waves." Research Report No. CE142, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Australia, Nov., 42 pages (ISBN 0 86776 502 X).


International conference presentations by Peter CUMMINGS

CHANSON, H., and CUMMINGS, P.D. (1994). "Modelling Air Bubble Entrainment by Plunging Breakers." International Symposium : Waves - Physical and Numerical Modelling, IAHR, Vancouver, Canada, M. ISAACSON and M. QUICK Edit., Vol. 2, pp. 783-792 (ISBN 0-88865-364-6).
CUMMINGS, P.D. (1994). "Gas Transfer at Overfalls and Drop Structures." International Conference on Hydraulics in Civil Eng., IEAust., Brisbane, Australia, 15-17 Feb., pp. 105-109


Re-oxygenation in open channel flows

Student : QIAO G.L.

Study period : 1993-1994

Publications derived from the project

CHANSON, H., and QIAO, G.L. (1994). "Drag Reduction in Hydraulics Flows." Proc. Intl Conf. on Hydraulics in Civil Eng., IEAust., Brisbane, Australia, 15-17 Feb., pp. 123-128 (ISBN Book 85825 5979). (Download PDF file)
CHANSON, H., and QIAO, G.L. (1994). "Air Bubble Entrainment and Gas Transfer at Hydraulic Jumps." Research Report No. CE149, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Australia, Aug., 68 pages (ISBN 0 86776 5828).


 Debris damFree-surface flows of thixotropic fluid

Student : Sebastien JARNY (Laboratory of Materials and Structures in Civil Engineering L.M.S.G.C., France)
Study period : -2005

Publications derived from the project
COUSSOT, P., ROUSSEL, N., JARNY, S., and CHANSON, H. (2005). "Continuous or Catastrophic Solid-Liquid Transition in Jammed Systems." Physics of Fluids, Vol. 17, No. 1, Article 011703, 4 pages (ISSN 0031-9171). (Download PDF file)

CHANSON, H., JARNY, S., TOCQUER, L., and COUSSOT, P. (2004). "An Experimental Study of Sudden Release of Bentonite Suspensions down an Inclined Chute." Proc. 15th Australasian Fluid Mech. Conf., AFMC, Sydney, Australia, M. BEHNIA, W. LIN & G.D. McBAIN Ed., Paper AFMC00252, 4 pages (CD-ROM) (ISBN 1-864-87695-6). (Download PDF file)

CHANSON, H., COUSSOT, P., JARNY, S., and TOQUER, L. (2004). "A Study of Dam Break Wave of Thixotropic Fluid: Bentonite Surges down an Inclined plane." Report No. CH54/04, Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, June, 90 pages (ISBN 1864997710). (Download PDF files [2.1 Mb]) (PDF version at EprintsUQ)

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